In the Middle Ages Damascus was the centre of a flourishing artisan industry (swords and laces). Great Mosque of Damascus, also called Umayyad Mosque, the earliest surviving stone mosque, built between 705 and 715 ce by the Umayyad Caliph al-Walīd I, who proclaimed to his citizens: “People of Damascus, four things give you a marked superiority over the rest of the world: your climate, your water, your fruits, and your baths. Alexander the Great marched through Syria on his way to Persia and India and while he likely passed... al-Walid’s mosque. Slabs of stone on the bottom. There are three domed sections in the courtyard of the mosque. Copyrights Selcuklu Belediyesi. However, when the number of Muslims increased, the section dedicated tor the Muslims became insufficient. The building borrows palatial architecture and is decorated with intense mosaics and paintings; most of which have been destroyed but evidence is still there. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. After Damascus was conquered by the Muslims, they began to share the use of the building far worship with Christians during the reign of the Omayyad Caliph Muawiyah bin Sufyan. Because some of the marble parts were broken or damaged, they were subsequently covered with blue and white glazed üles in the Ottoman period. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. great mosque of damascus 709-15 AD, syria, easter 2004 interior of the great mosque, containing the shrine of st. john the baptist. Various stone columns and types of masonry can be seen in the courtyard of the building. The prayer hall has three aisles parallel to the qibla wall, a common arrangement in … • The culture of Islamic Spain reached its apex in Moorish art and architecture. It is a master piece of architectural ingenuity having a decisive influence on the maturity of mosque architecture all over the Muslim World. Original floor coverings, belonging to the Omayyad period, were uncovered during the most recent restoration. This joint use continued far an extended period. Mosaic . There is a large Nisr (Eagle) dome in the middle. Mosaics and wall paintings followed the practices of antiquity and were primarily employed in Syria, Palestine, and Spain. These include marble carvings and mosaics on the walls and multi-colored mosaics. Brisch, K., "Observations on the lconography of the Mosaics in the Great Mosque of Damascus," Content and Context of Visual Arts in the lslamic World, ed. This celebrated mosque has three tall minarets, and they and its great dome and lofty walls are the most prominent objects in every general view of Damascus. A large courtyard occupies the northern part of the mosque complex, while the haram ("sanctuary") covers the southern part. However, this inscription has been tost. Arts of the Islamic World: the Early Period. Marble panels were mounted on the wall through hooks in small holes. God, angels and the enlightened ones testify that there were no gods other than Him. The sacred spot where the mosque was built provided a place of divine worship for over three millennia. “The Great Mosque of Aleppo rivalled that of Damascus in its decoration, painting, and mosaic” [6] As noted earlier, much of the mosque plan dates from Nur al-Din’s complete reconstruction in 1158 when it was arranged into a rectangle of about 150m x 100m with a large courtyard in its middle . God gave him trust and peace and supported him with annies; you cannot see and thus humiliate the word of those, who denied him. After the Islamic conquest of Damascus, the holy site was shared between the Christians and the Muslims of the city. The celebrated Great Mosque of Damascus was built in the early eighth century by the Umayyad caliph al-Wal?d b. 'Abd al-Malik. Stone sculpture existed, but stucco sculpture, first limited to Iran, spread rapidly throughout the early Islamic world. Mosaics in the Great Mosque of Damascus. BACKGROUND Like other mosques that were built on top of ancient shrines , that of Damascus was developed in an area where once was located a temple dedicated to Hadad Aramaic, built about 1000 BC, of which a basalt monolith was found. One of them is a ritual ablution fountain area, the other one is the Treasury room and the third one is the Zeynel Abidin dome, with eight columns. The ground plan of the Umayyad Mosque is rectangular in shape and measures 97 meters (318 ft) by 156 meters (512 ft). The sanctuary consisted of three naves, parallel to the sanctuary wall. The Umayyad Mosque was built on the site of the Roman Temple of Jupiter, converted into the Church of St John the Baptist in AD 379. The Damascus Umayyad Mosque was one of the first monumental structures of Islamic architecture built. All rights reserved. The Great Mosque of Damascus is the first monumental work of architecture in Islamic history; the building served as a central gathering point after Mecca to consolidate the Muslims in their faith and conquest to rule the surrounding territories under the Umayyad Caliphate. Damascus, 701-715. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. A '54 second video of the Ummayad Mosque (Great Mosque of Damascus), Damascus, using drone footage and digital modeling technology to show the courtyard of the Mosque from various perspectives. Great Mosque of Damascus Commentary. The Great Mosque of Damascus is the first monumental work of architecture in Islamic history; the building served as a central gathering point after Mecca to consolidate the Muslims in their faith and conquest to rule the surrounding territories under the Umayyad Caliphate. , Vll ( l 970, s. 83-141 John or the Prophet John, as he is called in transept. 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