Soon after Din-i Ilahi, Akbar introduced  Sulh-i kul as the official policy of the empire. Thus, ulama had full control over affairs and  were never satisfied with Akbar’s concessions. Akbar’s religious policy encouraged a broad religious outlook. TOS4. Bairam Khan, who subsequently became Akbar’s guardian and protector, was a Shia Muslim. These deliberations were not conducted only for the sake of inquiry and search but most of the participants hoped for a way to obatain favours and promotions from the court. Akbar made a friendship with the Rajput kings and took advantage of the superior and self-respecting Rajput heroes, so that the Mughal Empire could survive for a … Akbar had a keen interest in the religious and intellectual debates and disccusions, and thus took part in them in the hope that he would educate himself in spite of the fact that he never got a chance to formally edcuate himself. Measures adopted by Akbar to establish friendly relations with the Hindus: Akbar allowed freedom of worship to people of all religions. Therefore, we find that though Akbar  had a dominating  spiritual  side to him, which were clearly reflected in his religious policies, one cannot deny the fact that not always all his policies were made with only this contemplation. One of the major intra-religious conflict was between the Shia and Sunni sects. However, scholars have tried to explain such vigorous attitude as an attempt to appease the Muslim orthodoxy and to win their support. In fact he was so liberal in his religious outlook that he attempted to find a new religion on the basis of good points of all religions. Scholars have understood Akbar’s religious policies in diverse manners. Meanwhile, a large number of Shia  migration from the  Safavid state took place , which followed a very orthodox policy. The akbar adopted the policy of peace in place of Islamic doctrine. Culturally, The Hindus and Muslims came closer. Akbar is considered one of the greatest ruler of the Mughal period. The term was wrongly translated by scholar Vincent Smith as the House of Worship. Among the detailed accounts of his reign is a record by Abd-al-Kadir Badauni, who lived and wrote at the great emperor’s court and died in 1615 A.D., ten years after his royal patron’s death. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! In the first phase (1556-1574),  Akbar seems to  be in agreement with the Islamic orthodoxy. His inclination towards the leading  orthodox Sunni personalities prevented any overt break with the  ulama and he gave them full and independent  control over the religious affairs. Before examining Akbar’s religious policies, one should also pay heed to the religious challenges posed to the emperor during his reign. Others like I.A. Akbar was born and brought up in comparatively liberal surrounding. However, later we find that the confluence of different ideas led to confusion and led the debate to no conclusion. Scholar I.A. Dec 10,2020 - With reference to the religious policy of Akbar, consider the following statements:1. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. This proves that he did not abandon Islam, and can be seen, as Athar Ali suggests, the accusations were all from the bitter ulama, who were complaining against the curbs put on their revenue grants and political ambitions and couldn’t digest the fact that Akbar had moved away from their influence of an orthodox form of religion. He followed the policy of “Sulh-i-Kuls” or peace with all. Hence, the theory of Sulh-i kul propagated by Akbar denied the temporal practices of the Din and wanted to  replace it with the declaration of reason, rationale and also the rejection of superstition. Aurangzeb was an autocrat ruler. This weakened the power of the Rajputs to offer him resistance. Akbar gave land grants to Hindu, Jain and Persian institutions. Like many of the sufis, Akbar believed that communion with God… There is also a tentativeness in the manner in which he dealt with different groups. Rizvi said, the real significance of Mahzar, it seems, was that  it was the first effective declaration of the principles of sulh-i kul which Akbar had decided to implement firmly. Mughal state clearly had close association with the Sunnis  , but it followed a policy of tolerance and unlike its  contemporary Islamic states it had not made any public proclamation of ist affliation to one particular sect. Scholars like S. Rizvi and Athar Ali see it as representing a much wider change in Akbar’s perspective on religion and the development of his religious ideas. There is also a tentativeness in the manner in which he dealt with different groups. His Rajput wives and his […] Thus, Akbar himself became convinced of the futility of these debates, and finally closed the Ibadat Khana. Akbar's policy was positively motivated towards achieving the cultural unity of India. He married his son Jahangir to the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Dass, son of Raja Bihari Lai. It is because. It was also known as the principle of peace with all, ie peaceful behavior with all. (House of Lordship). Thus,  in 1567, Akbar changed stance and took some aggressive measures against the rajputs. Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (Rh.) Sharma argues that Mahzar was introduced to replace the sharia laws. Akbar's was a liberal and enlightened policy. RELIGIOUS POLICY The religious policy of the Mughal emperors was, on the whole, a tolerant one. He therefore, encouraged the emergence of a new elite group. Relation with Hindus. Akbar’s Religious Policy: Akbar is known for his liberal ideas and liberal religious policy. Abu Fazl links Din-i ilahi with the concept of Akbar being a spiritual guide of the people. This was a phase of intense discussions and introspection on the part of Akbar, which led to a radical change in his religious views, and deeply affected future state politics. In his period, dominant scholars included  Makhdumul Mulk Sultanpuri and Shaikh Abdul Nabi,  both were highly conservative  Sunni Mullahs. The policies were largely  propelled politically, which by the last phase is clearly expressed in the theory of Sulh-i kul, – the theory of absolute peace, where the subjects were not allowed to quarrel with each other and were to follow their spiritual sovereign who’ll guide them to the ultimate truth. It was a liberal philosophy, which translated as the universal peace. The basic purpose of Akbar’s religious policy was universal tolerance. Matrimonial alliances: In 1562, Akbar married the daughter of Raja Bihari Mai of Amber (modern … The proceedings at Ibadat Khana were initially confined to Muslims only.3. Akbar’s contact with the Rajput’s made him liberal. Learn how your comment data is processed. Akbar’s religious policy of harmony, reconciliation, and synthesis among all the religions did not develop all of a sudden. Th Religious Policy of Akbar was liberal. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Akbar followed the policy of matrimonial alliance. 4. As Irfan Habib states that it meant to inform everyone about the main spiritual truth. In the first 20 years of his reign, he made serious departures from the traditional Sunni system of government. However, his religious views went through a process of slow evolution. Akbar, in full Abū al-Fatḥ Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar, (born October 15?, 1542, Umarkot [now in Sindh province, Pakistan]—died c. October 25, 1605, Agra, India), the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India.He reigned from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent. He showed an equal amount of respect for all the religions in the country. He adopted a policy of mutual understanding and reconciliation among followers of different faiths and equality of all religions. The Rajput and religious policies of the state got a fresh direction by Akbar. Why does America want to back out of Open Skies Treaty. Some other scholars like K.A. To achieve this, he tried to establish a composite governing class which would not be discrinimated on the grounds of religion. Nizami suggests that Akbar wanted to use religion for his political advantage. Akbar’s interest in the Hindu Society led to some awakening regarding the evils of the Sati practice etc. This made it clear that Akbar’s position was higher than that of the  mujtahid, the interpretor of the holy laws. The Kachhwahas were the first Rajput clan to join Akbar and also helped in the war against the other Rajput clans as seen in the Chittor campaign. Your email address will not be published. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Abu Fazl’s Ain-i Akbari,  put forward the theory of  Rawa-i- Rozi or the social contract between the king and his subjects. This can only be done by a sovereign who is a representative of god( this link was also being advocated in his practice of din-i ilahi). The Orthodoxy saw them as heretics, but the Mughal state did not persecute them for a very long time. 1. Of course he made no effort to force his religion on his subjects. However, his religious views went through a process of slow evolution. Many historians have provided different opinions on the meaning and its consequence. I.A. To separate himself from the filed past standards of Muslim rule, Akbar waged war against the mullahs (experts in Muslim religious matters) for control over social and political policy in his empire. In the first phase (1556-1574), Akbar seems to be in agreement with the Islamic orthodoxy. Polity Bharat Ka Samvidhan: Ek Parichaya: Ek Parichaya (Hindi), Sansar डेली करंट अफेयर्स, 30 November 2020 - Sansar Lochan, Life of Basava and Shakti Vishishtadvaita Philosophy, Causes of the Downfall of the Mughal Empire, Reforms of Alauddin Khilji : Administrative, Military, Revenue & Economic, Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization : Salient Features, Lord Curzon : Reforms and the administrative measures, Lord Ripon (1880-1884) – A well-meaning Governor-General, Itolizumab (rDNA origin) – A Monoclonal Antibody | UPSC, Know about Hagia Sophia Controversy | UPSC, Administration of Lord Lytton (1876-1880). He abolished the pilgrim taxes on the Hindus. Thus, as professor R.P Tripathi says, ” Instead of bringing credit, the Ibadat Khana brought growing discredit. In 1562, the pilgrimage tax on Hindus was abolished. Akbar took a … Privacy Policy3. Abu Faz’l informs us about the abolishment of jiziya in the year 1564, and also the abolishment in the practice of enslaving the prisoners of war and their families. Evaluate the Religious Policy of Akbar The religious policy of Akbar the Great was the most liberal exponent of the policy of toleration among all Muslim ruler in India. He was convinced that he could not establish a strong empire without the cooperation of the Hindus who formed the majority of his subjects. Between 1556 and 1562, Akbar remained a staunch Sunni Muslim. In the initial years Akbar was also inclined towards the sect of Mahadawis. Hindus were given full freedom to construct new temples and repair old ones. Akbar established a Translation Bureau with the aim of translating Sanskrit works into Persian. PHASE II: Discussions/Apathy to Islam A change can be seen in Akbar’s religious beliefs around 1573 onwards. Khan explain it in the context of the political challenges faced by Akbar from the side of his Turani nobility. The second phase ( 1574-1580) started with a visible change in Akbar’s religious beliefs. Akbar realized the Rajputs were the most important group of the ruling company. Contemporary historians like Badayuni often criticize the concept of Ibadat Khana and calls it a place of worthless discussions. He wanted to show that he would not accpet any orthodox, sharia  law which lacked aql or a logical reason. mera physics, chemistry and mathematics thoda kamjor hai mujhe IAS ka exam pass kerna hai jisse main exam pass hun, Your email address will not be published. Who Was Akbar the Great? The nobility in this part was also dominated by Muslims. Akbar became a person of great importance because he did many things for the people. His reversal of Akbar’s policy of religious toleration resulted in weakening the entire structure of the Mughal empire. 3. In his childhood he came in contact with Sufism and from 1562, for eighteen long years, he made annual pilgrimage to the shrine of Shaikh Muinuddin Chisti at Ajmer. Thus, Akbar’s religious policies were implemented in the background of such religious challenges posed to him, of which the most crucial  one was the changes in the relationship and the constant struggle between the Crown and the ulama. Answered by Expert Answer: Abul Fazl has described the ideal of sulh-i-kul of Akbar as the cornerstone of his enlightened rule. Akbar: Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy: Part II (3) The Third Phase (1581-1605): Akbar's own religious ideas and beliefs crystallized slowly during the last phase. Content Guidelines 2. Sulh i-kul was an idea which was a result of Akbar’s experiences in while he quenched his thirst of gaining spiritual knowledge  over the years, by different media like being close with  the ulamas, instituting Ibadat Khana, Mahazarnama, the heavy influence of Sufi Chisti silsilas and many others. His father was a Central Asian Sunni given to belief in super­stitious mysticism. Answer: For religious knowledge of Akbar there were many debates took place in the ibadat khana at Fatehpur Sikri between learned Muslims, Hindus, Jainas, Parsis and Christians. Sansar LochanDecember 25, 2016History of India1 Comment. Cultural unity between the Hindus and the Muslims was strengthened. This also formed the basis for Akbar's policy of religious toleration. Akbar’s break from the orthodoxy is also symbolized with the propagation of the  Mahazarnama in 1579. In the past, orthodox mullah governments had imposed their version of orthodox Islamic polity, and their personal opinions, onto all of the subjects. 8. Akbar quashed the Jizya tax on the Hindus. Bairam Khan is responsible for molding his conduct and shaping his early policy. Three great scholars and liberal minded Sufis i.e. Akbar’s Tolerant Religious Policy: Akbar was very broadminded. He also married Mani Bai, daughter of the Kachwaha Raja Bhan Mai. Akbar was an imperialist. Causes of The First War of Indian Independence – 1857 Revolt, Brief Note on First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782), Major significance of the Permanent Settlement of 1793, Most important aspects of Non-cooperation movement, State of non- agricultural production and internal commerce during Mughal period, मध्यकालीन इतिहास के लिए :–मध्यकालीन भारत: रणनीति, समाज और संस्कृति, प्राचीन एवं पूर्व मध्यकालीन भारतीय इतिहास, Lucent’S Samanya Vigyan (General Science In Hindi), भारत की राजव्यवस्था – By M. Laxmi Kanth. In consonance with that policy, Akbar adopted a policy of universal religious toleration. Scholars like Vincen Smith perceives it as an infallibility decree, influenced by papcy, stating that Akbar was influenced by the Jesuit propagators. He practiced the tenets of Islam as a devout Muslim—prayed five times a day, kept fast in the holy month of Ramazan and honored the Ulemas of Islam. His treatment with the Hindus was very tolerant. As an enlightened ruler, Akbar based his rule on a firm foundation. The followers of this sect believed that the advent of a Mahdi or a messiah was forecasted and did not agree with the fact that the Prophet Mohammad was the last prophet. Khan opines that Mahzar can only be understood if we look at Akbar’s general attitude of promoting and befriending the Indian Muslims. Akbar captured strong forts of the Rajputs like the forts of Chittor, Ranthambhor, and Kalinjar. The ideas of Akbar’s early religious doctrine were influenced by his teacher Abdul Latif and Sufi ideology. Akbar was a pious Muslim but after marrying Jodha Bai of Amber, he abolished pilgrim tax. Widow re-marriage was encouraged. Akbar Religious Policy Religious Freedom to all Communities. Required fields are marked *. Nizami sees the change as nothing more than a changing attitude towards the ulama. Despite the lucrative salaries  of the Mughal court and open-policy of the state, the conflict between these two sects intensified. Akbar‟s religious policy basically based on the doctrine of Sulh-i Kul which means universal peace as well as tolerance for every individual. All of this had great political implications. He, therefore, appointed Raj into Mughal service and promotes religious tolerance. The Bhakti Saints and Sufi ‘Peers’ had already been stressing upon religious toleration. Thus, as S.A.A. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. His religious policy did not discriminate other religions and focused on the ideas of peace, unity and tolerance. Four pillars of Akbar’s religious policy: Akbar’s religious policy was based on the following four pillars: Factors influencing Akbar’s Hindu Policy: The 16th century when Akbar was born, brought up and lived was marked by a new awakening of broad- mindedness. Din-i Ilahi “the religion of God,” was a system of religious beliefs introduced by the Mughal emperor Akbar in 1582 CE. The crux of Akbar's religious beliefs was his faith in monotheism or Tauhid-i-Ilahi. In Akbar’s early years, this easily identifiable class was not well inclined to Mughal rule and could be easily be accused of disloyalty as well as of unorthodoxy. & his reforms Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. His idea was to combine Islam and Hinduism into one faith, but also to add aspects of Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Jainism. The sovereign, thus, had to follow the idea of a  Insaan-i kamil or the perfect man who adopts and favours the idea of tolerance. However, even after adopting liberal policies like these, not all Rajput groups joined him. Akbar was a devout visitor to the holy places and tombs of Muslim saints. S.R. Akbar had been brought up in an atmosphere surcharged with conflicting religious influences. Akbar’s religious policy and his treatment towards the Hindus healed strife and bitterness and produced an environment of harmony and goodwill where there had been racial and religious antagonism of a most distressing character. This can be clearly seen in the case of assimilating the Rajputs into the nobility. Religious and intellectual history of the Muslims in Akbar's reign with special reference to Abu'l Fazl (1556-1605). It states that like god, a king should  not discriminate, in giving his  rewards amongst his subjects , on the basis of religion they follow. Akbar also invited Zoroastrian priests, Jesuit missionaries and Jain priests to widen the scope of discussions. From his childhood Akbar had come in contact with Sujim. He started a new religion called Din-i- Ilahi which included the good points of all religions. Liberal influence of Hindu mother and tutors: Liberal views of his mother Hamlda Banu, his regent Bairam Khan, and his tutor Abdul Latif greatly influenced his mind to become broad minded. At the time of Akbar's death in 1605 there were no signs of discontent amongst his Muslim subjects, and the impression of even a theologian like Abdu'l Haq was that close ties remained. This period is also characterized by the discussions held at the  Ibadat Khana, established by Akbar at Fatehpur Sikri in 1575, after the Gujarat campaign. Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, 13 Chief Features of Akbar’s Rajput Policy, The Religious Policy of Aurangzeb and its Effects, The Religious Policy of the Mughal Rulers in India, Akbar’s Religious Policy with Special Reference to Sule Kul, 10 Reasons for Following the Rajput Policy of Reconciliation of Akbar, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. We have to be very careful while considering his religious policies. He also divides Akbar’s reign in the context of his religious ideas into 3 phases. Special efforts were made to associate distinguished Sufis with the activities of Ibadat Khana. It’s only over the years, that we find certain significant changes befell in the perception of the emperor towards the matters of religion in his empire. Up to the 14th year of reign, none of his children could survive and he was told to visit a holy man dwelling at Sikri village near Agra. This phase kept Akbar quite busy because of his several military conquests, and reforms implemented in revenue, military and other sectors. Thus, Akbar had to search for new support groups and he turned to Rajputs as possible allies. © Copyright by Sansar Lochan, India | All Rights Reserved. Asked by Farihafatma02 21st December 2018, 8:02 PM. Akbar wanted to free himself from the orthodoxy of the Muslim priestly class. In 1567, Chittor was attacked, and in a  Fathenama  issued by him after the vistory,  identified it as  a  jihad , subjugation of the infidels. Indian History, Mughal Emperors, Akbar, Religious Views, Religious Views of Akbar. So he decided to follow a diplomacy and friendship Raj in India. It can be seen as Akbar’s personal faith, which he welcomed people to join in. He established Ibadat Khana (place of worship) where he used to have religious discussions. High civil and military positions to Hindus: He provided high positions to the Hindus. For example, Todar Mai was his Finance Minister. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Jiziya, a tax on non-Muslims, was thus abolished to win them over. As far as the composition of the intellectuals is concerned,  Ibadat khana included scholars from across the religions. Thus, Akbar thought it necessary to broaden the base of the empire. Establishment of Ibadat Khana. Probably even more important to his ordinary subjects, Akbar in 1563 repealed a special tax placed on Hindu pilgrims who visited sacred sites, and in 1564 he completely repealed the jizya , or yearly tax on non-Muslims. The Rajput policy of Akbar was the result of his deepest understanding. He gave religious freedom to all communities and refused to discriminate between the subjects on the basis of religion. The great Mogul discoursing with a … He opines that the intention of Din-i Ilahi was to find a common ground between the  din  or the religion and the duniya or the materialistic or non-spiritual affairs. In the first 20 years of his reign, he made serious departures from the traditional Sunni system of government. Matrimonial alliances with the Hindus: He established matrimonial relations with the Hindus. Khan links the changes that were introduced in the organisation of the Mughal government and religious policy tot he structure, composition and changes under Akbar. Akbar, during former years of his reign was a staunch follower of Islam and was closely associated with the ulama  who dominated the court at that time. Results of the religious policy of Aurangzeb: The religious fanaticism of Aurangzeb overshadowed his virtues. The provincial … He wanted to work out a synthesis of all religions. Akbar was very broadminded. Akbar thus tried to befriend the Rajputs but at the same time desired to bring them under his suzerainty. Sulh- i kul was the product of the synthetic effect of the Bhakti and Sufism of the age. Also, we find that the historians like Badayuni and others accused Akabar of completely abandoning Islam and created his own religion of which he was the leader. Hence, we can see a final breakup  between Akbar and the ulama orthodoxy. He got translated the Vedas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata and the Gita from Sanskrit to Persian. Akbar’s Hindu wives also contributed to the change of his outlook. Akbar the Great, Muslim emperor of India, established a sprawling kingdom through military conquests but is known for his policy of religious tolerance. Akbar tried to remove the evil practices like Sati prevalent in the Hindu Society. In 1562, the pilgrimage tax on Hindus was abolished. The liberal religious policy of Akbar also directed him to be friendly with them. This document, like a petition,  was presented by the ulama  gave the Crown  the right to accept any position in case there is conflict among the orthodoxy, and that option will then be the final decision on the matter. As the empire expanded, it now included people of different faiths. Evidence of this practice comes from the fact that Akbar disliked and thought poorly of his mintier,  Todar Mal as he was a devoted image worshiper and Akbar himself believed that the god was besurat (limitless or formless). Babur and Humayun were tolerant ideas led to some awakening regarding the evils of the major intra-religious was. To temples of land to temples discuss the religious policy of akbar the great Mogul discoursing with a visible change in Akbar s... Saints and Sufi ‘ Peers ’ had already been stressing upon religious.. To establish friendly relations with the propagation of the Mughal court and open-policy of the empire priestly class were. 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