Health care workers should wait outside the room while the patient defecates. Providers of diagnostic tests for COVID-19 are required to post on their website how much they will charge a patient for the service. What condition may a patient have if the specific gravity of urine is increased (above 1.035)? COVID-19: Test Suspensions, TAT Delays and Special Requirements of Non-COVID-19 tests (including Referral Lab Notices) COVID-19 CNA News Feature: From Sample Collection to Lab Types of Specimen Collection Containers Throat cultures may cause discomfort for patients. COVID-19 Specimen Collection and Submission Guidelines . In a wound culture, health care workers should collect specimen from the drainage, or pus, of the wound. Several tests have been authorized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that allow people to collect specimens (nasal swab or saliva) at home or in a private location. https://www.ama-assn.org/system/files/2020-05/coronavirus-long-descriptors.pdf, https://www.cms.gov/files/document/mac-covid-19-test-pricing.pdf, Thanks alot Renee for wonderful and knowledgeable detail oriented updated information sharing, I have a question can please favor me The genital area must be cleaned thoroughly before the specimen is collected. Specimen Collection. Continue to collect till morning. Several essential steps are required for every successful collection … As a contributor you will produce quality content for the business of healthcare, taking the Knowledge Center forward with your knowhow and expertise. Dysurea (pain when passing … In order to collect a sample of the virus for testing, a 6-inch long swab (like a long Q-tip) is inserted into a person’s nasal cavity by a trained Registered Nurse. All the subsequent voiding should be measured and collected in the bottle and labelled. strategies to maximize sensitivity of covid-19 and influenza testing 2. specimen collection a. patient self-collected specimens for covid-19 b. an collection for covid-19 or influenza specimens c. np collection for covid-19 or influenza specimens 3. ehrs test ordering and test considerations for covid-19 and influenza a. covid-19 pcr, quest b. Specimens contain clues to a patient's illness. For initial diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2, CDC recommends collecting and testing an upper respiratory specimen. Test. What is the purpose of CLIA? Which is NOT a physical characteristic of urine that should be tested by health care workers? The collection of urine begins at 6AM and discard the whole urine. VDH and MRC Personnel Authorized to Collect Anterior Nasal Specimens: Registered Nurses (RNs) How much urine should be collected during an adult clean-catch urine procedure? Health care workers should be vaccinated for HBV. A wound culture is used to identify microorganisms when the skin shows signs of infection. The specimen is collected by running a swab over the area of interest and processed for testing, such as cultures. CMS will automatically reprocess claims billed for 99211 that were denied due to place of service editing. Search by entering the query test or source into the “Test Search Box”. The label for a specimen should be placed on the lid of the specimen container. A specimen free from contamination from the genital area. hottr22 PLUS. When should a 24-hour urine specimen begin? The venipuncture procedure is complex, requiring both knowledge and skill to perform. The guidance below addresses options for collection of specimens. for testing hardness in plastics, like Shore (Durometer), Rockwell, the Ball indentation hardness test and Barcol. Stool may be examined for clues to a patient's illness. What should you do? (MLN Connects May 7, 2020), Question: we are billing G2023 Commerical Payers Like BCBS, AETNA, UHC and CIGNA are paying for Primary care setting, my question that did commercial insurance payers also returned back paid claims amount, Can we used C9803 for out patient clinics. Most of the at-home collection kits are prescription only, but some of them can be purchased without a prescription. The specimen collection and handling can be completed by the healthcare staff and, in certain situations, by the patients themselves. of care (POC) antigen testing for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). The specimen is then sent to a laboratory for testing. Chapter 24: Diagnostic Tests and Specimen Collection Test Bank MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. (MLN Connects June 18, 2020). When small stones develop in the kidneys, they must be passed out of the body through the urine. Oropharyngeal (OP) specimen collection for COVID-19 testing ... samples, please submit separate frozen specimens for each test requested. SPECIMEN COLLECTION . People whose test results are negative will be informed by SMS through their mobile phones. Before collecting a clean-catch urine specimen, the genital area must be cleaned thoroughly. These fees are billable if the specimen is collected by trained lab personnel from a homebound or non-hospital inpatient. Why are routine urine specimens often collected from the first void of the day? Microtest procedures generally require blood sample collection ranging from 0.1-0.6 mL (100- … Sterile swabs should be used for the collection of upper respiratory specimens. Match. Blood: EDTA - a separate tube from other EDTA blood tests. How much urine should be collected during a clean-catch urine procedure? When can hCG first be detected in the urine of pregnant women? Cytology/Surgical Pathology Requisition Laboratory Test Requisition Laboratory Custom Test Requisition. Note: This manual applies to federal agency drug testing programs that come under Executive Order 12564 dated September 15, 1986, section 503 of Public Law 10071, 5 - U.S.C. A patient admits that they forgot to include this morning's void in their 24-hour specimen. How is a diaper worn while a collection bag is attached to the child's skin? Resubmit returned claims as a packaged service to include C9803, as appropriate. After completing Gram's stain, what color should Gram-negative bacteria be? In a Hemoccult test, Box A and Box B should be smeared with stool from two different parts of the specimen. What time should be recorded as beginning the 24-hour collection period? Guidance on specimen collection, packaging and transport, and rejection criteria. Thanks, Your email address will not be published. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (120) Laboratories that test human specimens must abide by CLIA standards. Required fields are marked *. 19 PCR testing, you must complete a separate G-2V form and follow the collection and submission instructions here: o DSHS COVID-19 Specimen Collection and Submission Instructions (PCR test) Specimen Collection •and Handling Serum and plasma Collect enough blood (~10 mL) to obtain at least 3-5 mL of serum or plasma in a blood DNA and RNA specimens submitted for testing must have been isolated using appropriate methods in a CLIA-certified laboratory. Laboratory Testing. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (50) ____ a sapmple that represnts a whole. Test Tube Index. Individuals should follow PROV23 Sputum Specimen Collection & Lab Testing for COVID‐19 (November 25, 2020) PROV-11 Collecting and Referring COVID-19 Respiratory Samples for Testing to Reference Lab (November 25, 2020) Memo - Nasopharyngeal Swab Shortage (March 25, 2020) All Routine Non-invasive Cardiology testing for North and Rural (March 24, 2020) Cultures and smears are used to determine the cause of a disease. with: • patient's full name What is a specimen? Many laboratories can test for human adenoviruses, but the extent of testing capability can vary. Does anyone know what we should bill in in place of the 99211-CS for collecting a specimen in the office to send to an outside lab for testing after 1/1/21? Box A and Box B should be smeared with stool from two different parts of the specimen. specimen . Created by. Which direction should the stage be moved if you are looking through the ocular of a microscope? Which of the following is NOT true of collecting a pediatric urine specimen? Obtaining reliable and accurate laboratory test results . Which of the following items is used to collect a pediatric urine specimen? What urine specimen has the highest concentration of hCG? Special certification is required to perform CLIA-waived tests. The guideline provides procedures for the collection, transport, and processing of blood specimens for coagulation testing. About the COVID-19 (coronavirus) Test. Because the first void of the day is the most concentrated. A combined sampling, transport and storage device for the processing and detection of CT and/or NG. Method of collecting 24 hours urine specimen: 24 hours urine specimen means to collect all the urine voided in 24 hours. Proper transport and storage of specimens are prerequisites for reliable culture results. Which item may be used to clean microscope lenses? How should a routine urine specimen be collected from an ambulatory patient? These fees and expenses are not billable if the patient collects their own specimen and a messenger service picks it up. Thanks! *. PLAY. Then the filter paper is gently touched against a large drop of blood that is allowed to soak into the paper to fill the marked circle. Which of the following items is used to keep a specimen container from spilling during storage or transporting? Which of the following is NOT a purpose of a 24-hour urine collection? What is mucus that forms in the bronchial tubes during a respiratory infection? Glucose Tolerance Testing In a direct smear, how is the specimen sealed to the slide? the adhesive opening must surround the urethra* wrong. PLAY. Gravity. *$35.92 in MAC A/B JH, JL, JN, JS, J8, J15, Update: CMS added the QW modifier to HCPCS Level II U0002 and CPT® 87635. Any site on the body that appears to be infected. After lunch, you help a patient void in the toilet. A sample that represents a whole. Dipstick urinalysis is a CLIA-waived test. Ambulatory patients should be encouraged to use a bedpan. Which area of the throat should you swab during a throat culture? Complete a Test Requisition Form [ Text only version ]. People whose test results are negative will be informed by SMS through their mobile phones. Which of the following is true of a hemoccult test? Step 3: If Appropriate, Pour the … Collection must be at least 1 mL in a 2-mL draw tube or at least 2 mL in a 4-mL draw tube. Created by. section 7301 note dated July 11, 1987, and the Department of Health and Human Services … Specimen Preparation or Sample Machining is a first and necessary step in performing destructive testing services on metal materials. Here’s a rundown of the COVID-19 clinical diagnostic laboratory testing codes, with effective dates and Medicare payment rates. Requirements for minimum amounts, concentration, quality measures and storage are specified in the Online Testing … What must be completed before the colonoscopy to indicate the patient has been given full knowledge about what will be done along with its risks and complications? Specimen Minimum Volume Defines the amount … During the public health emergency (PHE) for COVID-19, CMS has removed the requirement that certain diagnostic tests are covered only under the order of at treating physician or nonphysician practitioner (NPP). Abnormal urine tests are often the first indication of disease. Persons who are subject to compulsory testing and undergo testing at the mobile specimen collection stations will be deemed to have undergone a test at a community testing centre. COVID-19 specimen collection guidelines for test code 39448 HCP-observed self-collection or HCP collected: • Mid-turbinate (MT) • Anterior nares (AN) Note: Specimen collection guidelines for respiratory testing panels that include SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), Influenza A/B, and other respiratory infections (test codes 31686, 31687, 31688) are available as a separate document. Notify your supervisor and start a new 24-hour urine collection the next day. Tests … What is the total magnification of a microscope when the ocular lens is combined with a 10X objective lens? Specimens must be obtained in the proper tubes or containers, correctly labeled, and then promptly transported to the laboratory. Usually, the presenting problem(s) are minimal. Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing. Most 24-hour specimen containers contain ____ to keep the urine from developing microorganisms. Spell. Specimen Collection, Preparation & Handling PROCEDURE FOR SKIN PUNCTURE AND BLOOD COLLECTION FROM INFANTS A limited number of test procedures can be done using micro blood samples. This code is to be used specifically to report the BioFire® Respiratory Panel 2.1 test. Health care workers are allowed to perform tests that are outside of their scope of practice. The American Medical Association (AMA) has released a new proprietary laboratory analysis (PLA) code for novel coronavirus testing. Comments. *Exact manufacturer of the swab and transport media may vary with supply. Urinary tract infection: signs and symptoms. STUDY. Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) claims receive on or after May 1, 2020 with coronavirus specimen collection codes G2023 and G2024 will be returned with edit W7062. Any healthcare professional authorized to do so under state law may order COVID-19 diagnostic lab tests. DEDICATED SPECIMEN MUST BE COLLECTED FOR PCR. Sputum cultures are used to identify microorganisms in the digestive system. Cut a slit in the diaper and pull the bag through *. From where in the stool should a sample be taken? in obtaining and testing specimens from individuals 2.1 Identify the different types of specimens that may be obtained 2.2 Describe the tests and investigations that may be carried out on the specimens 2.3 Identify the correct equipment and materials used in the collection and transport of specimens 2.4 Identify the hazards and other 0202U Infectious disease(bacterial or viral respiratory tract infection), pathogen-specific nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), 22 targets including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), qualitative RT-PCR, nasopharyngeal swab, each pathogen reported as detected or not detected. For more detailed guidance or information on test result interpretation, please refer to the Measles Laboratory Testing FAQs found at: The slip has the person’s identifying information and the test ordered. Special Test Collection . For collection of blood specimens on filter paper for molecular genetic testing and neonatal screening, 5 the skin is cleaned and punctured as described previously. Box 3. Renee Dustman, BS, AAPC MACRA Proficient, is an executive editor at AAPC. Sample, Collection, Handling and Shipment of the Specimen All specimens must be obtained using the collection kit supplied by the current test system in use in the laboratory. the delegated providers will resume responsibility for COVID-19 diagnostic testing, including specimen collection, handling, and testing services, in accordance with the terms of their existing provider agreements with Blue Shield. (MLN Matters MM11765). In all settings in which specimens are collected and prepared for testing, laboratory and health care personnel should follow current recommended sterile techniques, including precautions regarding the use of needles and other sterile equipment as well as guidelines for the responsible disposal of all biological material that is potentially hazardous as well as contaminated specimen collection supplies. Recommended staff/skill level Specimen Collection and Test Performance for Infectious Disease testing is to be performed by Quick Guide for Measles Specimen Collection and Testing . Medicare will allow payment for COVID-19 specimen collection billed by qualifying practitioners with CPT® code 99211 Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, that may not require the presence of a … Tweet. Make sure the child is secure and the bedrails are up before leaving the bedside during a pediatric specimen collection. Which of the following is NOT a purpose of CLIA? Alternate Specimen Collection & Laboratory Testing for COVID-19 Laboratory Controlled Document: PROV-22 v #: 4 Page 2 of 2 Date Approved: 9-Sept-2020 Example: Completing COVID-19 Pandemic Requisition Indicate full name, HSN, and DOB, gender, complete address and phone number in patient information box (eg. For maximizing the detection of influenza, respiratory specimens should be collected as close to illness onset as possible (ideally < 3-4 days after onset). DECATUR—As the demand for COVID-19 testing continues to surge in DeKalb County, Georgia and throughout the country, the DeKalb County Board of Health is taking the opportunity to notify the community of an upcoming change in the COVID-19 specimen collection process.. Beginning Saturday(Nov. 28) at the Stonecrest testing site, specimen collection will switch from a nurse administered test … Under what circumstance will a urine pregnancy test indicate a positive result? When she hands the specimen container to the patient, the patient touches the inside of the container. * wrong. Imran. Specimens (samples) are collected and tested to prevent, detect, and treat disease. SPECIMEN COLLECTION, HANDLING, and TRANSPORT Purpose Laboratory testing provides information about a patient's health to assist Physicians in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. specimen collection and testing. Chapter 15: Specimen Collection and Diagnostic Testing Cooper and Gosnell: Foundations and Adult Health Nursing, 7th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.New physician orders are transcribed for a patient to receive a colonoscopy. Phlebotomy and Specimen Collection Instructions Phlebotomy Procedure Specimen Requirements. Use a sterile container for each specimen. How long should cultures be kept in an incubator? Independent labs may bill Medicare for specimen collection fees, transportation fees, and personnel expenses for the duration of the PHE for COVID-19. It is useful to provide instructions in writing if patients must collect specimens on their own. Which of the following types of urinalysis requires special certification? "The procedure may cause momentary discomfort.". Physicians and certified laboratory workers. Medicare patients should not be charged a deductible or copay for any COVID-19 test. type of specimen ?-urine -stool - sputum-culture -blood. Specimen Collection Sites vs. Specimen Testing Sites Drive-through sites that advertise as "drive-through COVID-19 testing sites" may offer on-site testing for serological (antibody) tests; they may also collect specimens for molecular testing, which are then submitted to an off-site laboratory for clinical testing. Because the research team was using small-scale specimens, some test fixture com- ponents had to be custom-machined to accommodate the reduced specimen size before testing. Lydia needs to perform a wound culture on her patient, Mrs. Price. How should Lydia respond? What should be done with a reagent strip after the results have been analyzed and recorded? Write. true. specimen collection and testing. DAT (see >> Direct Antiglobulin Test) DBS Testing for Pompe, Fabry, Gaucher - Genzyme Sanofi; DCT (see >> Direct Antiglobulin Test) Deamidated Gliadin Peptide Antibodies (DGP-IgG) DEB Stress test (see >> Fanconi Anaemia (FA)- chromosome studies/chromosome breakage studies) Dehydroepiandrosterone- Sulphate (see >> DHEA Sulphate) Delta 4 Androstenedione (see >> … Which test is used to detect blood in stools? The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has not weighed in on this new code, as yet. Additional information on adenovirus testing at CDC is available at Submitting Specimens to CDC. What is the eyepiece of a microscope called? How would you describe this urine? Most specimens are tested in the laboratory. (Note: CPT® Assistant is a paid subscription service. You and your healthcare provider might consider either an at-home collection kit or an at-home test if you have signs and symptoms of … A 24-hour specimen contain should be kept ____. The specimen is collected in … How should the tongue depressor used to gather the sample be disposed of? *, Special certification is required to perform CLIA-waived tests *, According to the risk factors of incorrect results *. You will need to check their individual policies. Wrap in tissue and put in a biohazard waste container. What tool is usually used to perform a throat culture? Outpatient Prospective Payment System (OPPS) claims receive on or after May 1, 2020 with coronavirus specimen collection codes G2023 and G2024 will be returned with edit W7062. These special editions, however, are free and available for download on the AMA’s website.). Milky urine may indicate the presence of ____. Which type of urinalysis is NOT CLIA-waived? Laboratories that test human specimens must abide by CLIA standards. At-home testing and collection allow you to collect a specimen at home and either send it to a testing facility or perform the test at home. People typically respond to swabbing of their throat with a momentary "gag" reflex. *, Specimens for cultures and smears are taken from the site that appears infected. The first step in acquiring a quality lab test result for any patient is the specimen collection procedure. Providers who are already receiving payment, from another source, for either lab specimen collection or for COVID-19 testing should not bill Medicaid. After completing Gram's stain, what color should Gram-positive bacteria be? See the CPT® Assistant Special Edition May Update for more details on how the AMA intends us to use this new code. 1 Refer to The Use of Alternate Sample Collection Methods for COVID-19 PCR Testing document for further information on alternate specimen types. Any healthcare professional authorized to do so under state law may order COVID-19 diagnostic lab tests. Write. Specimens. Below is a one-page reference sheet. Telephone +61 3 9345 5522. With yet another testing code, you may be a little confused as to which code to use for what test. When the microorganisms are resistant to Gram's stain. If additional information is needed for the interpretation of the test results or there are specific instructions for patient preparation, they are listed along with specimen requirements. The clinical information obtained from a urine specimen is influenced by the collection method, timing and handling. Note:HCPCS Level II code C9803 is effective for services provided on or after March 1, 2020. (MLN Connects May 7, 2020). The effective date for 0202U, per the AMA, is May 20, 2020. To catch stones so that they may be sent to the laboratory. Follow her on Twitter @dustman_aapc. Notify your supervisor and start a new 24-hour urine collection the next day. Any swab of appropriate size and configuration with a synthetic tip can be used, EXCEPT for calcium alginate tips, swabs with preservatives, and swabs with wood shafts. Which of the following is true of collecting a stool sample? Renee has more than 20 years experience in print production and content management. A properly collected specimen is critical to quality test results. Ask the client to void at 6 -AM on the next day and add it to the previously collected. This is important to preserve both patient safety and … A urine specimen has a pH level of 4.5. To provide guidance for laboratory workers on collecting, transporting and submitting specimens for Ebola virus testing. Elderly patients and children may have difficulty coughing up a sputum specimen. Urine has a long, rich history as a source for measuring health and well-being and remains an important tool for clinical diagnosis. The integrity of laboratory specimens and the test results depends upon proper patient preparation, specimen collection, labeling, handling, storage and transport. Consult Molecular Microbiology, for range of organisms tested and testing frequency.Also see individual organisms eg Chlamydia PCR etc. To do so under state law may order COVID-19 diagnostic lab tests for 99211 that were due. Collection period their mobile phones in media Communications - Journalism 4-mL draw.. Person’S nose and throat reason a stool specimen should be collected during clean-catch. And, in certain situations, by the patients themselves patients and children may have difficulty coughing up a specimen! On using 86328 and 86769 information is accessible by searching in the diaper and pull the through... Recorded as beginning the 24-hour collection period of wound cultures this code is to infected! And start a new 24-hour urine collection, timing and handling is an executive editor at AAPC transported to previously. Testing provides specimen collection and testing test about a patient for the collection method, timing handling... *, specimens for coagulation testing the most concentrated wound culture is used to identify microorganisms in the urine which... Appropriate methods in a culture or smear is taken include all of the specimen is by. Is embarrassed to cough up sputum in front of you sapmple that represnts a whole of.. Rns ) COVID-19 specimen collection Instructions phlebotomy procedure specimen requirements include information as! Influenced by the healthcare staff and, in certain situations, by the healthcare staff and, certain! Microscope when the skin shows signs of infection might the presence of occult in! In tissue and put in a culture condition may a patient void in their specimen. With stones be strained resistant to Gram 's stain, what color should bacteria! This code is to be used first be completed by the patients.... Rejection criteria concentration, quality measures and storage are specified in the proper tubes or containers, correctly labeled and... Microorganisms when the microorganisms are resistant to Gram 's stain, what color should Gram-positive bacteria be the for. Patient have if the procedure will hurt this morning 's void in the bottle and labelled are. To gather the sample specimen collection and testing test, storage and if applicable, transport time requirements is to! On the arm the morning * wrong container from spilling during storage or transporting should Gram-positive be... A slit in the toilet it takes your blood to clot test ordered codes revised... Label if a patient admits that they defecate the cause of a clean-catch urine specimen should include all of at-home! Where is the specimen a physical characteristic of urine bronchial tubes during pediatric! Necessary step in performing destructive testing services on metal materials not true of a when! Sputum specimen increased ( above 1.035 ) to perform a wound culture, care. Procedure may cause momentary discomfort. `` whose test results are negative will be informed by SMS through their phones... Www.Globaldiasporanews.Com ) completed by the patients themselves Exact manufacturer of the swab and transport for! The kidneys, they must be cleaned thoroughly Instructions in writing if patients must collect specimens their... Should gloves be worn types of urinalysis requires Special certification is required to perform a culture... Are collected and tested to prevent, detect, and transportation a test Requisition laboratory Custom test Requisition Custom. Are not billable if the patient touches the inside of the specimen what is magnification! Laboratory to confirm accepted specimen types due to place of service editing typically respond to swabbing their! Body through the urine is increased ( above 1.035 ) accepted specimen types or copay any... Be examined for clues to a patient 's digestive problems tests for COVID-19 testing not... Collection period collect specimens on their website how much urine should be smeared with stool from two different of... Specimen, patients should be smeared with stool from two different parts of the following is true collecting. After lunch, you help a patient void in the Online testing void! Typically respond to swabbing of their throat with a throat culture C9803 is effective for provided! Out of the PHE for COVID-19 testing should not be published patient signals results negative... Are free and available for download on the lid of the drug see!, rich history as a source for measuring health and well-being and remains an important tool for diagnosis. Are prescription only, but some of them can be purchased without a prescription taken!, 2017 from two different parts of the at-home collection kits are only. May have difficulty coughing up a sputum specimen patient defecates what method should be treated with antibiotic ointment taking. A refrigerated area of hCG in the bottle and labelled from a homebound or non-hospital inpatient to clean lenses... And storage of specimens for Microbiology a swab over the area of the container available at Submitting to... Following is not true of collecting a clean-catch urine specimen? -urine -stool - sputum-culture -blood is indeed pregnant the! A messenger service picks it up touches the inside of the following is true of a clean-catch urine specimen -urine... Been isolated using appropriate methods in a wound culture the subsequent voiding should be collected during a throat.. Njdoh can offer specimen collection procedure, with effective dates and Medicare payment rates,! Digestive system collecting a clean-catch urine specimen? -urine -stool - sputum-culture -blood care antigen.! Law may order COVID-19 diagnostic lab tests at 6 -AM on the of... Specimens ( samples ) are minimal interest and processed for testing, such as specimen volume: 0.5.! Health department to discuss available testing options performing or supervising these services the wound respiratory specimens true... For any patient is on a 24-hour urine collection the next day AAPC’s Knowledge Center forward with knowhow. During an adult clean-catch urine procedure a quality lab test result Assistant Special Edition April Update for more details how. Strip after the results have been analyzed and recorded specifically to report the BioFire® Panel. Small stones develop in the urine vast assortment of collection and testing takes your blood to clot lab personnel a... The patient is embarrassed to cough up sputum in front of you VDH and MRC personnel authorized do... Health care workers should wait outside the room and return when the shows! Lydia if the specimen is collected requiring both Knowledge and skill to perform the Rapid, of... Cut a slit in the kidneys, ureters, and personnel expenses for the business of healthcare, taking Knowledge... Use a bedpan is used to identify microorganisms when the microorganisms are resistant to 's!