It became a favorite vegetable of Australians by the 1830s and was frequently seen at the Sydney Markets. capitata. , Many shapes, colors and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage. Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. Plants have root systems that are fibrous and shallow. The appearance of the cabbage head has been given importance in selective breeding, with varieties being chosen for shape, color, firmness and other physical characteristics. Self-pollination is impossible, and plants are cross-pollinated by insects. They are both seedborne and airborne, and typically propagate from spores in infected plant debris left on the soil surface for up to twelve weeks after harvest. Contaminants from water, humans, animals and soil have the potential to be transferred to cabbage, and from there to the end consumer. Authors Sami Rokayya 1 , Chun-Juan Li, Yan Zhao, Ying Li, Chang-Hao Sun. campestris (black rot), Xanthomonas campestris pv. Clubroot, caused by the soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots. Brassica oleracea var. Rhizoctonia solani causes the post-emergence disease wirestem, resulting in killed seedlings ("damping-off"), root rot or stunted growth and smaller heads. in field crop. Cabbage heads are generally picked during the first year of the plant's life cycle, but plants intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year and must be kept separate from other cole crops to prevent cross-pollination.  During the 17th and 18th centuries, cabbage was a food staple in such countries as Germany, England, Ireland and Russia, and pickled cabbage was frequently eaten. , There are several Guinness Book of World Records entries related to cabbage. Because of its high levels of flavonoids and anthocyanins, cabbage has long been used as a herbal medicine. Cabbage grown as field crop.|Mature Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.) Overview. Because of the wide range of crops developed from the wild B. oleracea, multiple broadly contemporaneous domestications of cabbage may have occurred throughout Europe. Recent estimates indicate Africa has 1 00,000 includes broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, ha planted with head cabbage . Oblate, round and pointed shapes are found. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Subphylum: Angiospermae, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Class: Dicotyledonae, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Order: Capparidales, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Family: Brassicaceae, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Genus: Brassica, Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Species: Brassica oleracea var. conglutinans (cabbage fusarium wilt), Hyaloperonospora parasitica (downy mildew), Liriomyza brassicae (serpentine leafminer), Meloidogyne ethiopica (Root-knot nematode), Microtheca ochroloma (yellowmargined leaf beetle), Mycosphaerella brassicicola (cabbage ring-spot), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Excessive consumption of cabbage may lead to increased intestinal gas which causes bloating and flatulence due to the trisaccharide raffinose, which the human small intestine cannot digest, but is digested by bacteria in the large intestine. The Greeks were convinced that cabbages and grapevines were inimical, and that cabbage planted too near the vine would impart its unwelcome odor to the grapes; this Mediterranean sense of antipathy survives today..  Apicius gives several recipes for cauliculi, tender cabbage shoots. , Cabbage has been linked to outbreaks of some food-borne illnesses, including Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum.  Pliny the Elder listed seven varieties, including Pompeii cabbage, Cumae cabbage and Sabellian cabbage.  A possible wild ancestor of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, originally found in Britain and continental Europe, is tolerant of salt but not encroachment by other plants and consequently inhabits rocky cliffs in cool damp coastal habitats, retaining water and nutrients in its slightly thickened, turgid leaves. acephala) is a member of the genus Brassica and the mustard family, Brassicaceae. Brassica (-ae, f.) vel potius species Brassica oleracea (et varietas capitata) est virens herba quae consumatur ab hominibus, generaliter cocta. , In Istanbul, Sultan Selim III penned a tongue-in-cheek ode to cabbage: without cabbage, the halva feast was not complete. Brassica oleracea var.  A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage, and has many of the same uses.  According to the triangle of U theory of the evolution and relationships between Brassica species, B. oleracea and other closely related kale vegetables (cabbages, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower) represent one of three ancestral lines from which all other brassicas originated. This original species evolved over thousands of years into those seen today, as selection resulted in cultivars having different characteristics, such as large heads for cabbage, large leaves for kale and thick stems with flower buds for broccoli. , Cabbage is generally grown for its densely leaved heads, produced during the first year of its biennial cycle.  It is also a part of common names for several unrelated species. , In 2018, world production of cabbages (combined with other brassicas) was 69.4 million tonnes, led by China with 48% of the world total (table). Brassica oleracea var. , The inflorescence is an unbranched and indeterminate terminal raceme measuring 50–100 cm (20–40 in) tall, with flowers that are yellow or white. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.  Cabbage is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of vitamin B6 and folate, with no other nutrients having significant content per 100-gram serving (table). Res. autumn. Plants are 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall in their first year at the mature vegetative stage, and 1.5–2.0 m (4 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in) tall when flowering in the second year. 30cm. alba and rubra) cultivars and landraces from the Gene bank of Crop Research Institute was estimated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology. , When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination.  About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm (8–12 in) of soil; some lateral roots can penetrate up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) deep. 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