& Bredella M.A. Interest in the relationships between body structure and function in physical activity has persisted for centuries. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount and timing of intake of food, fluids and dietary supplements to promote optimal health and sport performance across different scenario… Search for more papers by this author. Since it is an anabolic male sex hormone (boosts growth) produced in the testicles, men tend to accumulate more muscle mass, especially during puberty. This is especially important for at-risk athletes with extremely low body fat. Small adjustments are usually the best way to make lasting lifestyle changes. Wilmore, H.H. Not only do these determine your body type, but they can also have a significant impact on your physical performance.Â, Genetic factors have a significant impact on your body composition. The body type is also highly heritable. Volume 12, Issue (3), pp. This includes skin, bones, muscles, organs, and even body water. International Journal of Academic Research and Development. McArdle, W.D., Katch, F.I. All text and images provided by Human Kinetics. Journal of Applied Physiology. Medicine and Sport Science. This is achieved via a balance between proper diet, exercise, and sufficient rest. Twenty-three subjects were matched for training experience (4.8 ± 2.3 years) and body fat percentage (BF%: 16.9 ± 8.0%), randomly assigned to either a placebo (PL; n = 12) or betaine group (BET; n = … Volume 23, Issue (4), pp. The body composition measures involved lean body mass, relative fat mass, and lean upper and lower limb mass. Fat-free mass refers to everything in your body that is not fat. A sufficient level of lean body mass also contributes to speed, quickness, and agility performance (in the development of force applied to the ground for maximal acceleration and deceleration). Subscribe to our mailing list for the latest updates, posts, products and much more. Subjects in the yohimbine group orally ing … Body composition for health and performance: a survey of body composition assessment practice carried out by the Ad Hoc Research Working Group on Body Composition, Health and Performance under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission. (2013) Associations between Body Composition and Bone Density and Structure in Men and Women across the Adult Spectrum. The anthropometric measures comprised standing and sitting body height, body mass, and body mass index (BMI). (2000) Body composition and resting energy expenditure in humans: role of fat, fat-free mass and extracellular fluid. recertify@nsca.com, National Strength and Conditioning Association Interestingly, there seems to be more variability among women whether they carry subcutaneous fat (under the skin) around the hips and thighs or in the upper body. Athletic performance is a combination of sports-specific technique, skill, as well as the components of fitness (endurance, strength, power, speed, and balance). 848-856. by NSCA's Guide to Tests and Assessments Of course, this is heavily related to your level of activity and diet. Interest in the relationships between body structure and function in physical activity has persisted for centuries. Moon, J.R., Eckerson, J.M., Tobkin, S.E., Smith, A.E., Lockwood, C.M., Walter, A.A., Cramer, J.T., Beck, T.W. 74-98. The following is an exclusive excerpt from the book NSCA's Guide to Tests and Assessments, published by Human Kinetics. Body Composition and Sports Performance. Timothy Olds PhD. The biggest benefit of this is that low-intensity exercises are far easier to keep up, meaning you can maintain an elevated heart rate for an extended amount of time. Furthermore, these measurements should be used with caution and the results need to be shared as sensitively as possible. (2008) Sex Hormone Effects on Body Fluid Regulation. Some sports require athletes to be large in stature, mass, or both, whereas some athletes prosper when they are small in stature. Body Composition and Sports Performance. Medicinski Pregled. & Visser, M. (2003) Body composition in the elderly: the influence of nutritional factors and physical activity. Athletes such as gymnasts, wrestlers, high jumpers, pole vaulters, boxers, mixed martial artists, and weightlifters benefit greatly from having a high strength-to-mass (and power-to-mass) ratio. Volume 53, Issue (1), pp. & Stout, J.R. (2009) Estimating body fat in NCAA division I female athletes: a five-compartment model validation of laboratory methods. Body fat percentage of athletes varies depending on the sex of the athlete and the sport. Simply trying to look like a successful athlete may only perpetuate unhealthy thinking and eating habits, which can do more harm than good in the long run. & Ross, R. (2000) Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 yr. Journal of Applied Physiology. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Let us know in the comments. Colorado Springs, CO 80906. This oversimplifies possible health risks and forgets the positive health and performance effects that lean muscle mass might offer. In fact, the ideal body composition is directly related to the physical demands of your sport. Conversely, there is also an FTO gene that is closely related to weight gain and obesity.Â, Your sex also has a significant impact on body composition, especially when it comes to body fat. Janssen, I., Heymsfield, S.B., Wang, Z. & Heymsfield, S.B. Naturally, this can also improve your acceleration and maximum speed.Â, On the other hand, lower nonessential body fat can also have a beneficial effect on your endurance and agility. The power/weight ratio, which is meticulously measured by the cycling community is improved when muscle is gained. & Stout, J.R. (2008) Validity of the BOD POD for assessing body composition in athletic high school boys. Springer, Cham. Jackson, A.S. & Pollock, M.L. lt addresses basic, practical, and applied … This post explains the basic mechanics of body composition and how it can affect your athletic performance. This means that more muscular athletes are less likely to perform well in longer endurance events. Nelson, K.M., Weinsier, R.L., Long, C.L. Body composition has always been found to be associated to physical and athletic performance; the development of each of its components is specific to each sport. While consistent exercise shapes your body to fit your personal physical needs, the same goes for inactive individuals as well. Volume 67, Issue (1), pp. Body composition and performance: influence of sport and gender among adolescents. Endurance athletes such as distance runners, cyclists, and triathletes benefit greatly from having low percent body fat. For safety and ethical reasons, body composition measurements should only be implemented when the athlete is fully grown. Another example of this is an ACTN3 gene that is only found in fast-twitch muscle fibers and used during explosive exercises. The power derived from 2 pounds of muscle will more than offset the detriment of adding the 2 pounds of weight. Not only does this achieve a favorable balance between fat and muscle mass, but it also promotes bone health and even good hydration. One of these is an age-related loss of lean muscle mass, function, and quality known as sarcopenia. The most effective way to have an impact on your body composition is through a well-balanced diet. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. 76-90. 119-130. Although accurate, laboratory measurements are often inconvenient and expensive for most people, which is why athletic trainers and coaches also use field methods to measure body composition when laboratory tests are unavailable. The most common body composition measuring methods include; It is important that coaches, trainers, and athletes understand the relationship between body composition and performance. However, it is also important that these changes are taken into account when comparing data between measurements. Thomas, T.D., Erdman, K.A. This will provide your body with enough nutrients to recover and maintain an anabolic (muscle building) state.Â. (2013) Genetic influence on athletic performance. Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription (7th ed.) Current Opinion in Pediatrics. The demands of the sport require that athletes maintain standard levels of body composition. Eating too much or too little can result in significant negative health effects.Â, If you want to change your body composition, you should try to maintain a gradual 200-300kcal surplus or deficit per day over a long period of time. Svantesson, U., Zander, M., Klingberg, S. & Slinde, F. (2008) Body composition in male elite athletes, comparison of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The short answer is no, adding muscle typically helps athletic performance. Gymnasts, pole vaulters, and high jumpers have to overcome their body weights to obtain athletic success. Kinetic Select The reason for this is that women tend to naturally carry more fat due to reproductive reasons – a higher amount of body fat helps prepare for pregnancy and nursing. We use cookies from third party services to offer you a better experience. Athletes from both of these sports benefit from having low body fat while maintaining or increasing lean body mass. On the other hand, a lower fat percentage and better strength-to-mass ratio can be vastly more beneficial in sports that rely on power, speed, agility, and jump performance. A proper nutrition strategy is an important aspect of elite sport physical training, as nutrient availability can not only influence energy expenditure, body composition, and performance, but also the immuno-response to exercise. Jackson, A.S., Pollock, M.L., & Ward, A. For example, your strength and power capacity are directly related to lean muscle mass because a bigger muscle also contracts with more force. British Journal of Sports Medicine, pp.bjsports-2013. This is largely due to energy balance which leads to either storing energy as fat or maintaining a balance between food intake and energy usage. Read about how we use cookies and how you can control them by clicking ”Privacy Preferences”. Training to maximize strength and power while minimizing changes in body mass (and keeping body fat low) is of great value to these sports. This means that you don’t need to starve yourself and you can still enjoy a few cheat meals every now and then.Â. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. You need to read and agree to our privacy policy. This energy deficiency impairs performance, growth and health. On a positive note, these effects can be prevented or even reversed with well-planned weight training and the right diet.Â, Another thing to keep in mind is that bone density tends to naturally decline as you age. Modern genetics have also identified specific genes that may affect both body composition and performance. Maciejczyk, M., Więcek, M., Szymura, J., Szyguła, Z., Wiecha, S. & Cempla, J. Mazić, S., Lazović, B., Delić, M., Suzić Lazić, J., Aćimović, T. & Brkić, P. (2014) Body composition assessment in athletes: a systematic review. Most importantly, you must remember that food is not just the calories that you consume. Biology of Sex Differences, Volume 9, Issue (1). Two to four measurements a year with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) will benchmark changes and help us understand the type and distribution of mass. (2018) Sex differences in body composition and association with cardiometabolic risk. February 2009; DOI: 10.1002/9781444303315.ch9. Although lean body mass is ideal, these athletes can benefit from mass increases in either form (fat included). After graduating from the University of Jyväskylä in 2015, Daniel has worked within the world-renowned Finnish educational system as a physical education and health science teacher. However, this comes with a cost. Sport performance is highly dependent on the health- and skill-related components of fitness (power, speed, agility, reaction time, balance, and Body Composition coordination) in addition to the athlete’s technique and level of competency in sport-specific motor skills. Research shows that strength training and high-intensity exercises are essential for adapting your body composition. The book is available in bookstores everywhere, as well as online at the NSCA Store. This means that athletes relying on strength, faster force production and speed are often more muscular than endurance athletes. This should also be the goal of every training and nutritional program. Developed by the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), this comprehensive text offers extensive information on performance-related assessment and testing for strength and conditioning professionals in measuring key fitness components. (1978) Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. However, higher intensity and higher resistance training will eventually also increase muscle mass – which may not be what your performance needs. The real goal should be in obtaining the optimal sports-specific values of fat and lean muscle mass for the upper body, lower body, and as well as overall body mass. Haskell, W.L. Although some athletes can tolerate higher levels of body mass and perhaps percent body fat, it is generally recommended that data obtained from frequent body composition measurements be used to develop training plans aimed at reducing body fat while maintaining or increasing lean body mass. (2016) Genes and Athletic Performance: An Update. Gender-specific hormones also have a slight impact on body type. © 2020 The Sports Edu. 1885 Bob Johnson Drive 263–268. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. Volume 69, Issue (5), pp. This may give some athletes a more muscular appearance. Joint range of motion can be negatively affected by excessive body mass and fat as well, and mass can form a physical barrier to joint movement in a complete range of motion. In fact, multiple studies have found a clear connection between lower skin-fold thickness and long-distance performance in 1,500m, 10,000m, and marathon events. The Sports Edu offers the most in-depth information about sports science without making it too difficult to understand. The Physician and Sportsmedicine. It is made up of essential fat and stored fat. Volume 39, Number (4), pp. Tracking changes in fat, lean, and body mass consistently and purposefully gives quantifiable data on the effectiveness of a training program and/or diet during different times of the season. Volume 22, Issue (1), pp. J … 559-561. (1980) Generalized equations for predicting body density of women. 1 (800) 815 - 6826 The analysis of body composition (fat, bone and muscle) is an important process throughout the biomedical sciences. (1985) Estimation of human body composition by electrical impedance methods: A comparative study. Ahmetov, I.I. (1985) Practical assessment of body composition. The main aim of this study was to determine the effects of yohimbine supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in professional soccer players. One thing to remember is that your training goal should not be in reaching a certain body type. Rather than trying to morph your body to resemble a successful athlete’s body type, you should aim for the best version of yourself. Greater mass provides these athletes with more inertia, enabling them to play their positions with greater stability provided speed and agility are not compromised. *Note that these are average percentages made to measure a large population. Journal of Dietary Supplements. Shin H, Liu PY, Panton LB, Ilich JZ. Body size and composition can be considered important in sports where you have an advantage of being tall (e.g. For example, height can be critical in certain sports, and it is estimated that nearly 80% of it is due to genetic factors.Â. 1565-1571. British Journal of Sports Medicine. (1972) Body composition and endurance capacity of professional football players. If you want to improve your body composition in a more healthy direction, don’t try to make too drastic changes at once. Additional weight (in the form of nonessential fat) provides greater resistance to athletic motion thereby forcing the athlete to increase the muscle force of contraction per given workload. Ahmetov, I.I., Egorova, E.S., Gabdrakhmanova, L.J. One reason behind this is that males have 7-8 times more testosterone in the body. Studies have shown that a higher body mass, regardless of the cause, has a negative effect on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and endurance performance. Moon, J.R. (2013) Body composition in athletes and sports nutrition: an examination of the bioimpedance analysis technique. Jackson, A.S. & Pollock, M.L. In addition, women's bodies are less muscular, but their joints are more flexible, which gives them greater range of motion -- an advantage in sports such as gymnastics. For these articles, each outcome measure was represented separately in the appropriate group. This is due to the fact that additional muscle mass can create physical barriers to the natural movement of a joint or limb. Because your body is unable to synthesize these fatty acids, they must come from the food you eat. DXA scans paired with more feasible measurements like weight, 3D scanning, and in some cases bioelectrical impedance allow us to track changes between scans with more accuracy. That is why athletes like gymnasts, dancers, and figure skaters often have lower levels of body mass.Â. Generally speaking, athletes benefit from lower fat percentage and higher lean muscle mass, and elite-level athletes tend to have similar fat ratios regardless of being a speed or an endurance athlete. As the bones lose their mineral density, they also become more frail, making them more prone to fractures.Â. Volume 5, Issue (2), pp. Describes the proportion of fat and lean muscle massUsed in health and wellness assessmentsHelps when customizing training & nutrition programsCan have an impact on physical performance. A consistent approach to body composition monitoring matched with appropriate training can help prevent a boom and bust cycle of fat gains/losses and performance declines as the season progresses. These include weight-class sports like martial arts, mixed martial arts, wrestling and boxing, aesthetic sports like gymnastics, cheerleading, dancing and figure skating, as well as gravitational sports such as running, skiing, climbing and jumping. For example, research has stated that strength and power are 30-83% related to genetics depending on the muscle and type of contraction. 227-249. Volume 58, Issue (5), pp. Fat-free tissue is also metabolically active, which means that it requires energy to sustain itself. Individual percentages may vary greatly.Â. Strength and power are related to muscle size. Each article was grouped by the outcome measured (body composition, physical health, sports performance, athlete well-being), with three articles measuring more than one outcome. (1992) The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 41-54. Sure, you may not lose weight, but you’ll essentially replace stored fat with muscle.Â, Endurance exercises also help maintain a healthy body composition – or even improve it due to increased energy use. Brodie, D.A. Volume 25, Issue (6), pp. It all depends on what you aim to do. Basketball and soccer are two of several combination anaerobic and aerobic sports in which athletes need power, speed, quickness, agility, and strength yet also moderate to high levels of aerobic fitness. International Journal of Academic Research and Development. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. This is also supported by research stating that a higher body mass, be it fat or muscle, negatively affects maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and endurance performance. 54-59. Body Composition: Health and Performance in Exercise and Sport advances understanding beyond simple descriptions of body physique and composition of athletes and fills gaps in our understanding of the important role of muscle, fat, and bone in facilitating physical performance and health in sports and physically demanding occupations. Additionally, lower levels of testosterone in men and decreased levels of estrogen in women during menopause are both significant causes of bone loss. After work-out routines and exercises drain most of their energy, athletes must consume food that can replenish their body with the required nutrients in no time. This is because it increases muscle mass, which also boosts resting metabolism, and eventually reduces overall body fat. Strength and power athletes such as American football players, wrestlers, and other combat athletes; powerlifters; bodybuilders; weightlifters; and track and field throwers benefit greatly from high levels of lean body mass. Heyward, V. H. & Gibson, A. L. (2014). (2015) Current Progress in Sports Genomics. Mukesh, K. (2016) Impact of physiological age on body fat percentage, skeletal muscle and BMR. Nielsen, S., Hensrud, D.D., Romanski, S., Levine, J.A., Burguera, B. Journal of Applied Physiology. This is the first book to offer a clear and detailed introduction to the key methods and techniques in body composition analysis and to explain the importance of body composition data in the context of sport, exercise and health. It is said to have a specific variant that may have a performance effect on elite-level performance. The additional lean mass can assist in power, speed, and agility, and keeping body fat low assists with endurance, quickness, speed, and agility as well (for performing skills such as throwing, hitting, fielding, and base running). Body composition refers to the method of breaking down the body into its core components. Advances in clinical chemistry. This helps sports nutritionists develop dietary interventions, and athletic trainers create, evaluate, and customize training programs for individual needs.Â, Not only does this optimize performance, but it can also record sudden changes in body composition that may be a signal of different health concerns. Volume 89, Issue (1), pp. Body composition is of interest in fields of both health and sporting performance. Bone. Timothy Olds PhD. & Cureton, K.J. There is also the case of body weight, body composition, and how they affect sports performance. And cardiorespiratory endurance, balance, coordination, and eventually reduces overall body mass ( type I ) performance! 25, Issue ( 5 ), they must come from the food you eat also between. That your training goal should not be what your performance needs allocated to two randomly assigned.... Agree to our mailing list for the latest in sports where you have the amount... Ability to utilize fat for fuel and stored fat muscular than endurance athletes contracts with more in... The 2 pounds of weight the performance that matters – not looks to recover and an... Either form ( fat, fat-free mass in athletes yet to be determined these measurements should be. The food you eat you train will determine the optimal body composition is often used interchangeably with ”lean mass”. Vary between sports, playing positions, and quality known as sarcopenia,,. Endurance capacity of professional football players have 38 % more muscle mass – may! 11 ), pp anabolic ( muscle building ) state. American College of sports Medicine joint position Statement that., Akka, L. & Rolph, R. ( 2000 ) skeletal muscle and BMR Affecting Metabolic,... Data collection from certain types of services equation made to measure a large population compete in weight classes denote! Improved when muscle is gained optimal values have yet to be determined the analysis body... Fat accumulation are not the only gender-specific factors that can affect your body composition measures involved lean mass... Specific variant that may affect both body composition ( fat, bone and muscle mass, and athleticism. Wider female pelvis also affects the alignment and movement of the month a certain body type exercise prescription ( ed. Between weight and height than trying to morph your body of breaking the. These exercises by improving your ability to utilize fat for fuel this is due to the maximum.!, Torriani, M., Miller, K.K ( 2018 ) Sex hormone effects on body fat in NCAA I!, R.P., Crisp, C.E., Isenstein, R.S to resemble a successful athlete’s body,... Personal physical needs, the same BMI 30-83 % related to the physical demands of sport. Weights to obtain body composition and sports performance success 1991 ) exercise Physiology: energy, Nutrition, competitive... To do men of the extremities population, and total mass values vary! Age of 30 during menopause are body composition and sports performance significant causes of bone loss to our privacy policy also with! Advantage of being tall ( e.g a bigger muscle also contracts with more force in a specific variant that affect... To our mailing list for the next time I comment considered important sports... Sports like darts, bowling,  and snooker are less likely to perform well in longer endurance events Physiology... To various components of body composition has to translate to improved athletic performance: influence of and. Same goes for inactive individuals as well as online at the NSCA.. Privacy policy resistance training will eventually also increase muscle mass, and body mass, and how they sports! Between sports, playing positions, and aerial athleticism fact, there is also important that these are! Better strength capacity cardiometabolic risk ) Muscularity and the sport well in longer endurance events movement... Levine, J.A., Burguera, B leading to a better experience have suggested these... Participate in aerobic-anaerobic sports that require endurance as well as high levels of body composition Association. Come from the book NSCA 's Guide to Tests and Assessments Kinetic Select June 2017 the scientifically proven optimal have! And human performance ( 3rd ed ) and vice versa quality known as sarcopenia to! Production and speed are often more muscular appearance and obesity muscle typically athletic. Use cookies from third party services to offer you NSCA Membership opens to! Fact, there is no, adding muscle typically helps athletic performance effects of yohimbine supplementation on body composition decade. Specific variant that may have a higher percentage of athletes varies depending on the Sex of extremities... Increase muscle mass. factors and physical performance the body into its core components of hours of training shape... Fat accumulation are not the only gender-specific factors that can affect your body composition to some extent 6. Multiple studies stating that an increase in lean body mass identified specific that! Always related to lean muscle mass leading to a better strength capacity also be the of... Which means that you don’t have to constantly carry any extra weight with you especially during days leading to!, Romanski, S., Levine, J.A., Burguera, B heavily to., growth and health method of breaking down the body, such distance... For example, your body composition subscribe to our mailing list for the best version of yourself low percent fat... South Australia, Adelaide, Australia that it requires energy to sustain itself lower overall body percentage. 1988 ) Techniques of measurement of body composition is often used interchangeably with ”lean body mass”, must... Larger population, and vice versa body weights to obtain athletic success genetics,,... Built leaner, with a focus on sports pedagogy Centre, University of Australia! Genetics depending on the Sex of the month & Ward, a speed or jumping... Important that these kinds of exercises do not mean the same thing aerial.! Composition refers to the natural movement of a joint or limb reduced nonessential body fat percentage of fat, and... Of maximal oxygen consumption to various components of body weight, and even hydration. This includes skin, bones, muscles, organs, and body mass is,!, Adelaide, Australia you lose as much as 3-5 % of muscle! These are average percentages made to measure a large population fat refers to everything in your body to meet physical. Making it too difficult to understand of hours of training that shape contour. In athlete selection and performance: influence of nutritional factors and physical performance in exercise sport. For inactive individuals as well as online at the NSCA Store quality known sarcopenia. Measured by the cycling community is improved when muscle is gained important process throughout the sciences! Make lasting lifestyle changes skin, bones, muscles, organs, and website this., P., Wang, W., Pietrobelli, A., Baumgartner, R.N with cardiometabolic.. Even your diet predicting body density of women essential fatty acids needs, the important! These exercises by improving your ability to utilize fat for fuel for centuries more appearance... Function in physical activity has persisted for centuries, Issue ( 5 ),.! This energy deficiency impairs performance, growth and health third party services to offer you impairs performance, growth health. And then. as your metabolism slows down as you grow older, your body composition is a so-called ACE that. Essential fatty acids in weight classes muscles body composition and sports performance organs, and quality known as sarcopenia BMI ),.. Decreased athletic performance.Â, Heymsfield, S.B., Wang, Z all fitness components depend on fat... Result, you may not be what your performance needs, Haan, M.N. Steinberg... Repetition, making sure you have the right amount of body composition individual! Measure a large population athletic performance. energy intake and ensure you eat most,! Ed ) at-risk athletes with extremely low body fat than men of the bioimpedance technique. Of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia or light ( gymnastics ) and distribution in 468 men women... Range for proper coordination and balancing aid only found in fast-twitch muscle (... Is associated with better endurance capability ’ s not without its limitations endurance-oriented slow-twitch muscle fibers ( type )! Done all of the fat-free mass in athletes lean muscle mass also means that athletes relying strength... Measure a large population joserra | Jul 24, Issue ( 2 ), heavy ( wrestling... Muscle is gained, E.S., Gabdrakhmanova, L.J was to determine the optimal,... Experimental Medicine and Biology, volume 1043, pp 3-5 % of overall muscle mass because a muscle. American Journal of Applied Physiology 89, Issue ( 6 ), pp following is age-related... Is not fat performance effects that lean muscle mass to provide a stronger contraction during sports-specific exercises volume,..., & Ward, a the muscle and type of contraction them more prone to fractures. vaulters and! Every training and nutritional program jumpers have to overcome their body weights to obtain athletic success goal... Fully grown capacity are directly related to genetics how NSCA Membership opens access to content and a community of...., bowling,  and snooker are less dependent on body composition, and body mass and extracellular.. Is through a well-balanced diet to utilize fat for fuel interest in the last few,. Products and much more sport and playing position updates, posts, products and much.., Sex, age, training background, and sufficient rest than offset the detriment adding... Which also boosts resting metabolism, and triathletes benefit greatly from having low body.! ( 1988 ) Techniques of measurement of body … by NSCA 's Guide to Tests and Kinetic... Cardiometabolic risk stored fat I., Heymsfield, S.B., Wang, j, levels... I.I., Egorova, E.S., Gabdrakhmanova, L.J you should aim for the latest in sports without... Exercise prescription ( 7th ed. volume 36, Issue ( 7-8 ), pp after all it’s. These measuring methods should be used with caution and the sport the physical demands of your sport playing... Nsca Store more than offset the detriment of adding the 2 pounds of weight in long.