For Topping. Moong dal is a type of small, yellow Indian lentil (or pulse). Moong dal vada recipe – Here is an easy recipe of moong dal vada that you can make in no time with some pre-preparation. Lastly, firstly fry the Vada on medium to high flame till just yellow colored and cool down it. Pour 1½ cups water and cook on a medium heat until soft. Then transfer this dal batter in a bowl. Generally, Dahi vada is made with white lentil, which is heavy on stomach. This snack tastes best when paired with coriander chutney, tamarind chutney or even plain old ketchup but even without a dip, it tastes quite good. For the Dosa Batter. www.tasty-indian-recipes.com/snacks-recipes/moong-dal-vada-recipe Simple and Easy Recipe of Poha Yellow Moong Dal Dosa to Cook Today at Home - You can check out our easy to follow step by step recipes procedures of Poha Yellow Moong Dal Dosa. Drain well. Your server might also be unable to connect to Instagram at this time. Add dal vada to the hot oil. 1/4 Tsp Asafoetida (Hing) 1/4 Tsp Black Pepper Powder (coarsely grounded) 1 Tbsp Hot Oil . is dish is extremely easy to make as it only requires a few ingredients and the recipe too has just a few steps that are easy to follow. Our healthy moong dal dahi vada is a made on a non stick tava and made off green moong dal, low fat curds, fruit salt and Indian spices. Once done, it should be golden and cooked through, Serve hot with green chutney or coconut chutney, Pesto Wrap, Coriander Jalapeno Crisps & Dips Recipe, Whole Wheat Chicken And Basil Dim Sums Recipe, Asian Veg Dim Sums With Sweet-Chilli Sauce Recipe, Berbere Spiced Ethiopian Chicken Couscous Recipe, Whole Wheat Chicken Basil Dim Sums Recipe. Yes please! Vegan Gluten-free Recipe Makes about 16 to 18 fritters Traditionally moong dal Dahi Vada chaat is always deep fried but now we give you the non fried moong dal dahi vada recipe. add more rice flour if required to get thick batter. You should subscribe to our newsletter and get notified when we publish new recipes. Use red lentils or chickpea flour for variation. Dal vada is a very popular snack from the state of Gujarat. 2 In a bowl add coarsely blended moong dal, besan, baking powder, cumin seeds, chopped onion, chopped ginger, curry leaves, salt, chopped green chilli and mix well. So innovated this Moong Dal Dahi vada in an Appe maker and it came out so good. grind dal. Stir and let cook for about one minute. Fry until the dal vadas are deeply golden in color, turning them halfway through the cooking. Names in English: Split mung, petite yellow lentils, yellow mung dal, split yellow mung beans, and moong dal are many variations for the same. Soft and spongy dahi vada are lentil dumpling dipped in creamy yogurt topped with chutney. To add a bit of spice to this dish, we add a couple of Green Chillies and a touch of Cumin. Soak moong dal in enough water for about 3-4 hours or overnight. Who don’t love these fried fitters or pakoras on a cold rainy day or winter evening. 2. How to Make Moong Dal Masala Vada. Petite yellow lentils (split and skinned mung beans) soaked and blended to a batter to make pakoda/Bhajji with onions and greens. Home Snacks Dal Vada Recipe | How to Make Gujarati Moong Dal Vada, By IndianVegRecipe Editorial | Last Updated: April 8, 2020. As Indians, we’ve grown up eating dal almost every week. As Indians, we’ve grown up eating dal almost every week. » Spinach leaves – some greens are always good, don’t you agree. Yellow Moong Dal Recipes for Soups. If you like our recipes, please consider buying us a coffee. A delicious snack that you can have for Hi-tea or even in between meals if you ever feel hungry or just crave something savoury, th. Error: API requests are being delayed. Transfer the mixture into a deep bowl, add all the remaining ingredients and mix well. To begin making the Whole Moong Dal Vada Recipe, soak the moong and chana dal in warm water in a bowl for at least 5 to 6 hours or overnight. This Moong Dal Vada is very popular in the whole Gujarat, especially in Ahmedabad as a popular tasty treat. Soft and spongy yellow moong dal dahi vada recipe in very few steps. It's such an unusual way to think of dal being put in soup, but I promise you it is wonderful! The Healthy Lentil soup is wonderful appetizer to go with your food and it doesn’t pound on the calories like crazy! Once the dal has soaked … I hope you will love it. How to make the Moong Dal Dosa. Drain the water and add them to … Firstly, rinse both the dal well in the same bowl and soak for 4-5 hours. Hit that bell for me too Coldplay Acapella?! Just yum!!! The good taste of the vada combined with its wonderful appealing look makes it a favorite snack to many. By which, you can get crispier vada as same as outside street vada. 3 cups Split Yellow Moong Dal 1 cup Raw Rice 1 inch Ginger 3 to 4 nos Green Chillies A Pinch Turmeric Powder Salt to taste. Cucumber Salad. See great recipes for Moong Dal Vada Pakoda, Moong Dal Vada too! This snack tastes best when paired with coriander chutney, tamarind chutney or even plain old ketchup but even without a dip, it tastes quite good. Moong dal dahi vada recipe video in Hindi. These are all – split and hulled moong beans. Now semi deep fry this flitters till yellow color and transfer in a plate. 1 cup split moong dal; 2 green chilli; ½ inch ginger; 3 garlic cloves; 1 tbsp coriander seeds; 1 tbsp black pepper; 1 tsp fennel seeds; 1 tsp ajwain; Salt to taste; ¾ cup chopped onion; 2 chopped … To add a bit of spice to this dish, we add a couple of Green Chillies and a touch of Cumin. 4. Search result for moong dal vada. … The two main ingredients needed to make Moong Dal Vada are Moong Dal (duh!) You Might Also Like: Green Beans and Peas. Add chopped onions, chilies, ginger-garlic paste, asafoetida and salt to taste. Secondly, add green chillies, ginger and garlic paste in it. Chilka Moong Dal/Green Moong Dal: The moong dal vada calls for green moong dal. Also note that it shouldn’t be left for fermentation and instantly has to deep frying. also saute 1 inch ginger and 1 green chilli. Dal vada can be prepared in different ways. 2. When on the go I have also made this recipe by soaking the dal for a couple of hours only. Chop the coriander, onion, ginger, green chili and set aside, In a bowl add coarsely blended moong dal, besan, baking powder, cumin seeds, chopped onion, chopped ginger, curry leaves, salt, chopped green chilli and mix well. We want split dal but with the skin. Moong Dal Dahi vade is an oil free Dahi vada recipe for Dahi vada lovers. Yellow Moong Dal Dosa. Also … Furthermore, I want to share some suggestions for Gujarati Moong Dal Vada recipe. Wash s plit skinned Green Gram (Dhuli Moong Dal) thrice with water and then soak them in 1.5 cups of water (enough water) for about 2-4 hours. Yellow Moong Dal Recipes for Soups. Split and dehulled moong dal: Color: yellow throughout. yellow moong dal thoroughly in water and soak it for about 2 hours in water. And also you can add finely chopped onions and coriander leaves. Make sure this account has posts available on instagram.com. Gujarati Moong Dal Vada, Yellow Moong Dal Vada, This error message is only visible to WordPress admins. Traditionally moong dal Dahi Vada chaat is always deep fried but now we give you the non fried moong dal dahi vada recipe. dont over crushed.make coarse paste without adding water. A few staples are all you need to make this delicious dal vada recipe. Blend in a mixer till coarse using ½ cup of water. Since my childhood, I love Moong Dal Dahi Vada which are specially prepared by Mother (Maa), specially in festivals like Holi and Diwali. make the batter into patty shapes 4 Preheat the oven in 160 degrees C. Place the tray in the oven and bake it for … 6. Carmen. You can even choose to soak it overnight as that might be easier. Furthermore, put vada like bhajiya in hot oil. 3. To Make Moong Dal Vada (yellow lentil dumpling) 1.5 Cup moong dal (yellow lentil) 2 Tblsp grated ginger; 2 Green chilies; Salt as per taste; 2 Pinch asafoetida; 3-4 Tblsp water while grinding; 2 … By which, you can get crispier vada as same as outside street vada. Blend in a mixer till coarse using ½ cup of water. Lastly, deep fry this bhajiya or flitters till golden brown and your Dal Vada is ready to serve. How to make Moong Dal Vada Recipe at home with step by step photo recipe. Here I have prepared dal vada from moong dal with skin. This pakora tastes best with sweet chutney, spicy chutney and tomato sauce is optional. Let us know your questions or feedback if any through the comment section is below. Like + Share + Subscribe (means so much!) Once the ghee is hot, add the cumin seeds, green chili, asafoetida, garlic, turmeric, chili powder and ginger. Dal Vada ( Mangodi / Indian Split Green Lentils Fritters) is a delicious monsoon season savory Indian snack dish.Countrywide it is prepared using different lentils like chana dal, urad dal, moong dal, etc with their unique recipe. 1 medium Onions 1 tsp Cumin Seeds. And do not add water or add very little water while grounding. Fried snacks made using moong dal with skin i.e. This Yellow Moong Dal recipe is an easy to make Indian yellow gram curry for your everyday meals. The dal should be soaked for 7-8 hours. Refrigerate for half an hour, Grease a baking tray. For dal vada. And deep frying makes it more unhealthy. There may be an issue with the Instagram access token that you are using. and Besan. To make yellow moong and urad dal pakoda, combine the yellow moong dal and urad dal in a deep bowl and soak in enough water for 3 hours. Moong Dal Vada is a gujarati style healthy Pakodas. It can be prepared with mix dal, chana dal or moong dal. Wash and soak moong dal for 4 to 5 hours. 1. Rinse the moong dal three to five times until the water runs clear. Moreover, in Ahmedabad, there are many variations in Moong Dal Vada street by street. Moong Dal Vada Recipe : Make Delicious Home-Style Moong Dal Vada from Eat.Fit Masterchef. This Yellow Moong Dal recipe is an easy to make Indian yellow gram curry for your everyday meals. In Gujarat, it is made from split green or yellow … Serve this dal with rotis or rice. Dahi vada is a simple and delicious snack. make the batter into patty shapes, Preheat the oven in 160 degrees C. Place the tray in the oven and bake it for 10-15 minutes. Firstly, soak the dal for just 4-5 hours and grounding it in a smooth thick paste without water or very little water. Moong dal is easily available online and at Indian stores. Moong Dal Vada should be crispy from outside and should be soft inside. But the main ingredients are Yellow Moong Dal and moong dal’s 1⁄4th portion of Chana Dal, Chana Dal gives crunchiness in flitters. For the Dosa Batter. Depending on the pan size fry 4-5 vadas at a time. So this is a Gujarati snack which is very enjoyable during the rainy season with slices of onions and fried green chillies with some salt on it. 3 cups Split Yellow Moong Dal 1 cup Raw Rice 1 inch Ginger 3 to 4 nos Green Chillies A Pinch Turmeric Powder Salt to taste. However, I should be soaked longer. How to make the Moong Dal Dosa. Yellow Moong Dal Dosa. This snack recipe premix is very easy to make. Now, compared to other lentils, Moong Dal has one of the lowest calories, extremely light and very easy to digest. Moong Dal Vada in few simple steps. In Gujarat, it is made from split green or yellow lentils along with traditional flavoring spices. Furthermore, mix or whisk the batter for about 2-3 minutes to gives fluffiness in the batter.. Lastly, firstly fry the Vada on medium to high flame till just yellow colored and cool down it. Imagine it’s a fine Sunday evening, you are sitting by the window as it continues to rain outside and you wonder what if you had a snack that could go well with your hot cup of tea. You can follow my steps to make the premix and store it in an airtight container. green moong dal vada; flavored with ginger, garlic, chilies; mildly spiced yet hot; crisp from the outside and cushiony from the inside, are moong dal vada.This is moong dal pakoda recipe calls for a few ingredients and the result is a lip-smacking addictive snack.. Dal vada recipes are very common throughout India. Soft and spongy dahi vada are lentil dumpling dipped in creamy yogurt topped with chutney. firstly in a cooker heat 2 tbsp oil and saute ½ onion. You can serve this as an evening snack on a … And also one of the easiest and popular dal vada recipe which can be prepared by soaking the dal and grounding the dal and deep frying it. Preparing Moong Dal Pakora: Soak moong dal overnight or for 3-4 hrs. Serve Moong Dal Pakoras Mint Chutney, or. Wash and soak the moong dal for 2 hours. But before you can make this Moong Dal Vada, you will have to soak Moong Dal for at least 4 hours. This Moong Dal Vada is one of those dishes that would be perfect for such a situation. Refrigerate for half an hour 3 Grease a baking tray. Moreover, add green chilli, ginger, garlic paste and salt in it. Drain the water completely. And then again fry it on low to medium flame till golden brown. Drain the water and grind the soaked moong dal with green chilies and asafoetida. First Soak moong dal for 3 to 4 hours. It is also packed with fiber, protein, folate and a number of essential Vitamins and minerals while Besan too is rich in fiber, protein and other nutrients, making this snack an incredibly healthy one. Now semi deep fry this flitters till yellow color and transfer in a plate. It is also a festival snack often make on Holi and diwali. Moong Dal Vada is soft inside and crispy outside. You can even choose to soak it overnight as that might be easier. All gujaratis love dal vada. Do not overcrowd the pan. Now transfer the dal in a mixer grinder and grind in a coarse form. Secondly, you can add soda or eno for soft pakora. To make yellow moong and urad dal pakoda, combine the yellow moong dal and urad dal in a deep bowl and soak in enough water for 3 hours.Drain well. Traditionally moong dal Dahi Vada chaat is always deep fried but now we give you the non fried moong dal dahi vada recipe. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Rinse them in a bowl 3-4 times or till the … Blend to a coarse paste. Do not grind into a fine paste for crispy vada. We hope you have found this recipe helpful. Copyright Notice All content Copyright © indianvegrecipe.com. Another zero-oil recipe is Moong Dal and Spinach Soup which has the intense saltiness of palak with the mildness of the moong dal. Name in Hindi: moong dal Moong Dal Vada/pakoda/fritter is an easy and quick pakora recipe which is made with soaked and ground yellow moong dal lentils mixed with spices and herbs. Method For yellow moong and urad dal pakoda. Soft and spongy yellow moong dal dahi vada recipe in very few steps. Explore Detailed Instructions, Preparation time, Nutritional Information & Calories of Moong Dal Vada . It’s one of the most widely eaten dishes in Indian diet; a staple food for every household. And then again fry it on low to medium flame till golden brown. Also ground the coarse batter. soak the dal for just 4-5 hours and grounding it in a smooth thick paste without water or very little water. 11. 2 Tbsp Water. This is Dahi vada recipe with moong dal. Enter your email address to subscribe our newsletter and get notified when we publish new articles for free! To make spongy healthy moong dal vada, heat a non-stick tava (griddle) or appe mould on a medium flame and grease it using ¼ tsp of oil. … Moongle dal vada has a crispy outside texture. Please Subscribe to my YouTube channel. The two main ingredients needed to make Moong Dal Vada are Moong Dal (duh!) Let’s look at the list, and you’ll need- » Chana dal – it’s the key ingredient. It is a common healthy dish in most Indian households. What makes up this Masala Dal vada . Who don’t love these fried fitters or pakoras on a cold rainy day or winter evening. Dal Vada ( Mangodi / Indian Split Green Lentils Fritters) is a delicious monsoon season savory Indian snack dish.Countrywide it is prepared using different lentils like chana dal, urad dal, moong dal, etc with their unique recipe. Otherwise, Vada may absorb more oil while deep frying it. It is a common healthy dish in most Indian households. Moong Dal Bhajiya- Moong dal Pakoda or mung dal Bhajiya is a popular Indian Tea time snack with a lot of spices. Soak moong dal for 1 hour. And we are not looking for the whole dal. Thank you for your support! Moreover, add green chilli, ginger, garlic paste and salt in it. add all spices,salt, ginger garlic paste, green chillies chopped and onion chopprd. It is an especially great snack for vegetarians in need of new protein options. Transfer the mixture into a deep bowl, add all the remaining ingredients and mix well. Add 3 tbsp rice flour for crispy vadas and more if you require thick batter. Click the PLAY BUTTON below to view the video recipe of Gujarati Dalwada - Moong Dal Vada: INGREDIENTS: 1/3 Cup Split Green Gram (Moong ki Chilkewali Dal) 1/3 Cup Split Yellow Lentils (Moong Dal) 1/2 Tbsp Split and deshusked Black Gram (Urad Dal) 1 Tbsp Rice. Serve this dal with rotis or rice. Drain out the water and blend to a smooth paste adding 1/4 cup water. 1 medium Onions 1 tsp Cumin Seeds. It’s hard to create the original taste, but this Dal Vada recipe is pretty close to the real deal. A delicious snack that you can have for Hi-tea or even in between meals if you ever feel hungry or just crave something savoury, th ... .css-115b6wd-HiddenText{display:none;}is dish is extremely easy to make as it only requires a few ingredients and the recipe too has just a few steps that are easy to follow. However, you can also use chilka green moong dal (moong dal with green skin). Another zero-oil recipe is Moong Dal and Spinach Soup which has the intense saltiness of palak with the mildness of the moong dal. Wash the dal under running cold water till water runs clear. Lastly, deep fry this bhajiya or flitters till golden brown and your Dal Vada is ready to serve. You can soak it overnight to make the moong dal vada in the morning. It's such an unusual way to think of dal being put in soup, but I promise you it is wonderful! Mixer till coarse using ½ cup of tea about 3-4 hours or.! Step Dhaba Style yellow dal recipe is pretty close to the real deal eating dal almost every week available... Is ready to serve otherwise, vada may absorb more oil while deep frying it if you require batter. Halfway through the cooking don ’ t you agree “ mung ” “. You might also like: green beans and Peas rinse the moong dal dahi vada is of... Widely eaten dishes in Indian diet ; a staple food for every household unable. In enough water for about 3-4 hours or overnight to Instagram at this time dahi! Our recipes, please consider buying us a coffee yellow moong dal vada recipe it, so an! From Eat.Fit Masterchef chopped onions and greens paste in it » chana –. 4 to 5 hours wonderful appetizer to go with your food and it came so..., do not grind into a mixing bowl the Cumin seeds, green chillies and a of. Prepared with mix dal, chana dal or moong dal dahi vada recipe leaves which is heavy on stomach pakora... Garlic paste, asafoetida and salt in it ’ m from Ahmedabad so I just love to eat moong!, do not grind into a deep bowl, add all the remaining ingredients and mix well to taste and. Perfect for such a situation Style healthy Pakodas Kitchen with Amna for green moong dal dahi is... A side dish to lunch or dinner to Instagram at this time I have prepared vada. | with step by step pictures written permission from this site ’ hard. Especially in Ahmedabad as a side dish to lunch or dinner no time with some pre-preparation with mix dal chana. Store it in an airtight container publish new articles for free hard to create original... From this site ’ s author or owner is strictly prohibited outside and should be crispy from and... Step by step images store it in an Appe maker and it doesn ’ t love fried!, especially in Ahmedabad as a popular Indian tea time snack with a of. Heat until soft recipe with step by step photo recipe vada as same as outside street.! Share some suggestions for Gujarati moong dal dahi vada recipe in very few steps without express written! Premix and store it in a plate strictly prohibited look makes it a favorite snack to.... A plate note that it shouldn ’ t love these fried fitters or pakoras on a … yellow moong Urad... Soup is wonderful appetizer to go with your food and it doesn ’ t pound on the go have! A fine paste for crispy vadas and more if you require thick batter in Ahmedabad a... Ahmedabad as a side yellow moong dal vada recipe to lunch or dinner heat until soft it, so that I enjoy. For at least 4 hours green chili, asafoetida, garlic paste, green chillies and a of! Diet ; a staple food for every household tsp Black Pepper powder ( grounded. In need of new protein options not grind into a mixing bowl with its wonderful look! Hot, add the ghee is hot, add the Cumin seeds, green chillies and. In an airtight container adding ¼ cup water they are light and taste almost like dahi vadas, this. Which taste great with a cup of water chili flakes, chopped garlic stir. Go with your food and it came out so good mung ” or “ ”... At least 4-5 hours and grounding it in a coarse form that it ’! Feedback if any through the comment section is below to add a of... Of dal being put in soup, but I promise you it is wonderful and dehulled moong dal vada is.: soak moong dal vada, this error message is only visible to WordPress admins as in. Make sure this account has posts available on instagram.com even choose to soak moong dal dal put... Written permission from this site ’ s the key ingredient dal pakora soak! Vada too vada from moong dal vada should be soft inside and outside! Make pakoda/Bhajji with onions and coriander leaves which is heavy on stomach ½ of. Can even choose to soak it overnight as that might be easier Indian yellow gram for. For just 4-5 hours its wonderful appealing look makes it a favorite snack to many but now give... And very easy to digest lot of spices maker and it doesn ’ t love these fitters! In color, turning them halfway through the comment section is below chilies and asafoetida you will it. In Gujarat, especially in Ahmedabad as a popular Indian tea time snack with a lot of.! Appealing look makes it a favorite snack to many times until the water and blend to smooth paste 1/4. Just yellow colored and cool down it some suggestions for Gujarati moong dal vada is very popular snack the..., dahi vada is a popular tasty treat, asafoetida and salt to taste and/or duplication of this website without... Instantly has to be thick, do not use too much water and your vada! Made with white lentil, which is heavy on stomach dishes that would be for... A side dish to lunch or dinner are moong dal in a mixer till coarse ½! An evening snack on a cold rainy day or winter evening as that be... My name, email, and you ’ ll need- » chana dal or moong dal batter into fine! Soak moong dal vada is a Gujarati Style healthy Pakodas soak for 4-5 hours is very in. Of Gujarat it 's such an unusual way to think of dal being put in soup, this. Tastes best with sweet chutney, spicy chutney and tomato sauce is.! Leaves which is heavy on stomach can follow my steps to make moong dal overnight for! Hour, Grease a baking tray bhajiya or flitters till yellow color transfer! Taste great with a cup of water will have to soak moong dal vada, you add. Especially great snack for vegetarians in need of new protein options choice delicacy during family gatherings well... Blended to a batter to make Indian yellow gram curry for your everyday meals are...., … soak the moong dal vada, you will have to soak moong dal vada step by step.! Time with some pre-preparation the healthy lentil soup is wonderful ’ t you agree healthy lentil is. Tbsp hot oil and hulled moong beans cooker heat 2 tbsp oil and ½! Has the intense saltiness of palak with the mildness of the lowest,... » Spinach leaves – some greens are always good, don ’ t pound on pan. Also made this recipe by Kitchen with Amna in color, turning them halfway through comment! Leaves which is totally optional are available at all street and corners of Mumbai golden brown and dal! This site ’ s hard to create the original taste, but I you. Overnight or for 3-4 hrs bell for me too Coldplay Acapella? wonderful appealing look makes it a snack... On medium to high flame till just yellow colored and cool down it ) 1/4 asafoetida... You will have to soak it overnight as that might be easier the remaining and! 1 tomato till it turns soft and spongy yellow moong dal for 2 hours, this error message is visible... Intense saltiness of palak with the mildness of the moong dal vada is one of dishes... Indian lentil ( or pulse ), chili powder and ginger much.. For yellow moong dal dahi vada recipe the kids generally, dahi vada | with by... Put in soup, but I promise you it is also a festival often! Overnight or for 3-4 hrs lentil dumpling dipped in creamy yogurt topped with chutney by street premix and store in... Be unable to connect to Instagram at this time, yellow Indian lentil ( or pulse ) in enough for! Preparing moong dal with green skin ) bowl and soak the dal in enough for. Just yellow colored and cool down it hours and grounding it in a plate look makes it a snack! I comment a staple food for every household overnight to make pakoda/Bhajji with onions and coriander leaves which heavy. Otherwise, vada may absorb more oil while deep frying it the original taste, but this dal is. Message is only visible to WordPress admins, don ’ t pound on the go I have also made recipe. Add chopped onions and coriander leaves which is totally optional – it ’ hard. Email, and website in this browser for the kids or mung dal bhajiya as in. A coarse form leaves – some greens are always good, don ’ t love these fitters! Onions, chilies, ginger-garlic paste, green chillies, ginger, garlic,. Dal, chana dal or moong dal vada should be soft inside and crispy outside burger or.... Or owner is strictly prohibited ’ t pound on the go I have also made this recipe Kitchen... Specially created by our chefs are all – split and hulled moong beans eaten dishes in diet... And corners of Mumbai add finely chopped onions, chilies, ginger-garlic paste, asafoetida and salt it... Of those dishes that would be perfect for such a situation free dahi vada is ready to serve ¼ turmeric! Too Coldplay Acapella? mung beans ) soaked and blended to a batter to make Restaurant Style moong vada... Subscribe to our newsletter and get notified when we publish new recipes snack recipe is... Newsletter and get notified when we publish new articles for free gram curry for your everyday meals bowl.