By the final months of the war, as General Allenby advanced towards Damascus, more Ottoman soldiers were strung out in strongpoints along the Hedjaz railway than were trying unsuccessfully to stem his advance. These were like model train sets with light, narrow gauge sections of railway line that could be easily laid on the ground and relocated when they were needed elsewhere. They were used for transport, communication and companionship. The motor vehicle manufacturing industry increased production but it was a slow process because the industry was generally small and fragmented. This slowed the rate of advance, while the retreating troops fell back onto their supply lines and were augmented by reinforcements brought in by road and rail to stem the tide. In the meantime, a heavy reliance had to be placed on far less efficient horse-drawn transport. These unusual vehicles played an important role in the D-Day landings, the Battle of Normandy and the campaign in north-west Europe. Control of the Tigris River was crucial for ensuring that shallow-draughted river boats could supply the mainly Indian forces pushing northwards from Basra on the Persian Gulf. £15.00 postage. The final link to the front line troops was normally carried out by ration parties under the cover of darkness. The problems really began about 7 miles behind the front. The Germans used torpedoes to blow up ships carrying supplies from America to Britain. Click & Collect. The British, however, planned for a more mobile war and had decided to rely primarily on motor transport. Consequently, smaller dumps were established at road-heads from which horse and mule transport collected material. A surprise French and Serbian attack broke through the Bulgarian lines high in the mountains and pushed on to the Vardar River valley, severing the main railway line supplying the central and eastern half of the Bulgarian front. There, the foothold on Turkish territory was so small that horse transport and men undertook most of the transportation forward. Various items of uniform and equipment are labelled along with occasional notes about their use. Once Gaza and Beersheba had been taken, the existing Turkish narrow gauge railways were converted to standard gauge to support the advance towards Damascus. This line had been built shortly before the war from Damascus over 800 miles southwards to Medina, largely to strengthen Ottoman control of the region. The Entente and the Central Powers agreed upon one expectation at the outset: that there would be a rapid, offensive war which would be over quickly. Here shells are being unloaded at Brielen, just north of Ypres, on 3 August 1917. Food rationing in … Could be used to show children the different parts of a soldier’s kit in WW1. They were wrong. Light railways could bridge part of the gap but also became vulnerable to enemy artillery and small arms fire as they got closer to the front. The Gallipoli campaign could only be sustained by shipping supplies through the Mediterranean and using lighters and small vessels to take them ashore. It was expected that the Russian Army would be slow to mobilise, so the strategy was to sweep rapidly through Belgium and Luxembourg, invade northern France and encircle around the north and west of Paris. These were only a temporary stopgap - although some vehicles such as London buses remained in service throughout the war - and thousands more vehicles were ordered from manufacturers in Britain and increasingly the USA. or Best Offer. The three line trench system was how the trenches were dug. The rapidly advancing German troops far outran their supply lines once they entered France. The main food was now a pea-soup with a few lumps of horsemeat. It was only in 1918 that these supply problems were sufficiently overcome to allow offensives to be sustained. It was able to expand its pre-war bus production lines and they alone produced over 10,000 lorries during the war. Motor transport had matured and thousands of War Department lorries were purchased by ex-servicemen and offered increasingly effective competition. But it was a close-run thing, with the Fourth Army operating 50 miles ahead of the only reliable railhead when the Armistice came into force. Both sides also developed new protective equipment in response to changes in military tactics and technologies. More than 65 million men from 30 countries battled in the WW1. It also shows the harsh winter conditions and difficult terrain. By late 1916 construction of lines was under way, and between January and September 1917 the average tonnage conveyed weekly on light railways operated by British and Dominion forces expanded from barely 10,000 tonnes to more than 200,000 tonnes. The Turkish forces also relied heavily on shipping across the Sea of Marmara to supply their forces. The adequacy of transport and supply networks played a major role in shaping strategies for operations throughout the First World War and in influencing their success or failure. The railways met the first test, of moving nearly 120,000 men and equipment in 670 special trains to the main embarkation port of Southampton by the end of August. World War I was a global conflict that took place between 1914 and 1918. Nowhere was the planning more developed than in Germany and France. These include helmets, leather jerkins, goatskin garments and webbing. Fighting afflicted Africa throughout most of the war. Q 5855. Even a month after the occupation of Belgium, barely 15 per cent of the railway network was operating despite 26,000 workers being drafted in. Original German Cavalry Uhlan Schulterreimen Y-straps, 1916 or 1918 - Near Mint! Download A WW1 Soldier’s Equipment. £14.20 postage. However, the terrain near the front was often impassable for wheeled vehicles and so pack animals were used extensively. It was fired into the trenches in shells. For Britain's railways the world was never the same. Lorries unloading a supply train at railhead to deliver to a forward refilling point. It could also help break up … How are WWI and WWII connected? Various items of uniform and equipment are labelled along with occasional notes about their use. Horses, donkeys, mules and camels carried food, water, ammunition and medical supplies to men at the front, and dogs and pigeons carried messages. Supplies from Britain were routed through the port of Cherbourg and trains then ran across France and Italy to Taranto where ships carried them across the Aegean to the small port of Itea. One widely-used but widely-disliked ration was the canned soup, Maconochie. A key component in any military capability is logistics; support to the personnel engaged, the equipment used and the replenishment of stores. The engine at the head of the train is one of 100 2-6-2T American ALCO steam engines built in 1917, while beyond it is a recently delivered British 40hp Simplex petrol engined tractor. Equipment issued to troops in WW1 All a soldiers gear, uniforms, equipment etc was called "kit" and was carried in his "kit bag". WW1 Weapons and Supplies During World War 1 a variety of weapons and supplies were used. By 1918 each Division of about 12,000 men needed about 1,000 tons of supplies every day - equivalent to two supply trains each of 50 wagons. But even this revealed a further problem. One of these arose when the supply of steam coal from the Welsh mines for the Grand Fleet based at Scapa Flow was threatened by submarine attacks on coastal shipping. Q 9340. KS2 From machine guns to different types of gases, each was used for a specific reason and required great technique to use. Sinking of the Lusitania When the Germans sank the Lusitania in 1915, a passenger ocean liner with 159 Americans on board, the public opinion in the United States toward the war began to change. Anywhere beyond this point was potentially within range of the devastating effects of long distance artillery shelling. However, it was very evident that new equipment would be needed urgently and a simple, rugged freight locomotive previously designed for the Great Central Railway was selected in 1917 and 521 engines were built. The increasingly exhausted German troops were short of food and ammunition, and also faced stiffening resistance as the French used their well-developed rail network around Paris to assemble a new army to protect the capital. Following a French surrender, expected within six weeks, the forces could then face the Russians. Initial Turkish attempts in 1915 to invade Egypt from Palestine and cut the canal were repulsed. Effects include: blistering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external bleeding. Motor vehicles had yet to seriously threaten the railways, except for local traffic, while aviation was at an embryonic stage. The United States did not participate in the war until April 6, 1917, almost three years after it broke out. It seems the main cause of early food shortage was that farmers, suppliers and shop keepers were holding back stock; maybe they believed that they would need their produce past Christmas 1914 or they were just takin… Poison gas was used by both sides with devastating results (well, sometimes) during the Great War. patriotic WW1 posters patriotic WW1 photographs patriotic WW1 greetings cards WW1 saving certificates rationing in WW1 household economy in WW1 child farm labour in WW1 air raids in WW1 the Volunteer Force WW1 munitions factories observation balloons. World War II was a global war that was under way by 1939 and ended in 1945. Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. Lists of pages with links in sections on propaganda, call-up, maintaining supplies, air raids, wounded soldiers, victory; personal recollections and research World War One on … Subject: Stores And Equipment: Standard List Of Medical Supplies The Minimum Standard List of Drugs, Chemicals and Surgical Supplies which was issued with Operations Regulation No. But for the few that returned home there was a joyous welcome and reunion. By early 1917 these increasingly complex transportation networks - supported by a specially created Labour Corps which included tens of thousands of men recruited from China, Egypt, India and other Empire countries - were capable of supporting defensive lines almost indefinitely. The French and Germans had a ready solution for the first part of this journey because they had recognised before the war that there would be an important role for 60cm gauge light railway systems. When the conditions became impossible for wheeled transport, pack mules were used extensively on the Western Front and other theatres such as the Salonika campaign. Meanwhile, further to the east, a campaign was fought along the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Germany's 'Schlieffen Plan' provided for concentrating forces by rail rapidly along both the eastern and western boundaries. War material had to be railed to a Channel port and, until special ferries were built to carry wagons, loaded onto a ferry, reloaded onto a French train or barges and carried forward to the main supply dumps behind the British lines. The fodder for the horses alone took up more transportation capacity than food and ammunition for the men. Invented in France in 1860, barbed wire was further developed in the United States, where it was used to restrict cattle and secure territory. The military used horses mainly for logistical support; they were better than mechanized vehicles at traveling through deep mud and over rough terrain. World War One By Christmas 1914, defensive lines of trenches stretched from the Channel coast to the Swiss border. Despite the best efforts, it took time to build new lines of communication. A single road, to Seres, supplied virtually half the British front, and collapsed rapidly under the traffic. Dan Snow is speed dressed with a 1914 British Infantryman’s kit as used at the Western Front. Meanwhile British forces were rushed across the Channel and deployed with the French and Belgian forces. The railways rapidly faced several major challenges. 0 bids. A light railway lies in ruins on the right. Only American industry could supply material in large quantities at such short notice to augment the limited British manufacturing capacity. The main reason why WW1 started was Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s assassination on June 28, 1914. By the end of the war over 5 million tonnes of coal had been carried on 'Jellicoe Specials', but the congestion caused was a factor in Britain's worst ever rail disaster at Quintinshill in May 1915 where 227 people died. Discuss why items such as puttees, gas mask, trench tool, field dressings and helmet were included and what we can learn from them about life in the trenches. A supply column carrying ammunition for the 2nd/4th Battalion, King's African Rifles is seen crossing the Lurio River during operations in Portuguese East Africa. Maintaining these huge forces in the field - up to 2 million men were serving on the Western Front - required vast amounts of supplies. At the turn of the twentieth century railways dominated land transport. Other elements of WW1 kit including rifles and puttees are shown in more detail. While road, rail and river transport were used where feasible, due to the harsh and remote terrain supply lines relied heavily on African porters. Dan Snow is speed dressed with a 1914 British Infantryman’s kit as used at the Western Front. Ending 21 Dec at … The front traversed mountainous terrain, posing huge logistical problems for both sides in supplying their troops. But humans have also used it for at least 1,000 years to help heal their injuries. Consequently the main supply dumps and railway yards had to be established before this danger zone had been reached. Horse-drawn transport was very widely used close to the front, especially over rough ground. Entire new railways were built including a light railway nearly 60 miles long to support troops in the lower reaches of the Struma River valley. During the war locomotives travelled far from their usual haunts, like this Great Central Railway locomotive at Birmingham in September 1918. In WW1 what equipment did they use? Dazzled Leave Ships, Boulogne, 1917, by Charles Bryant. Road transport also experienced huge impacts from the war, starting with the sudden disappearance of requisitioned buses, lorries and horses. This became much more pressing from 1916, when large amounts of equipment were transported across the Channel in response to appeals from the French authorities to meet chronic shortages. As the troops advanced, supplies and reinforcements had to be brought forward across the shattered landscape of the battlefield where roads and railways had been obliterated. Soldiers in the Western Front were very critical of the quantity and the quality of food they received. Getting close to the front was the relatively easy part of the process. The owners had been encouraged by a financial subsidy to purchase vehicles that met a War Department specification, a condition of which was that the vehicles could be requisitioned. They consisted of three different sections, the front line, the support trenches and the reserve trenches. Within a month this number had risen to over 400. Each nation had developed very sophisticated schedules for concentrating troops and equipment at key depots and then despatching the forces rapidly to designated positions on their frontiers. videos. This relentless challenge to maintain the flow of supplies forward from the supply dumps had to be undertaken largely at night to minimise the risk from harassing fire. Every bullet, blanket, bandage, artillery battery or tin of bully beef had to be manufactured and transported where and when it was required. WW1 Weapons: Zeppelin Huge investments were made to improve the logistical support for operations, and by 1918 these had reached levels of sophistication that were ultimately capable of supporting the offensives that brought the war to a close. Women took on many new roles in railway service previously restricted to men. German reservists are serenaded by a military band as their train departs from Berlin in a scene that was repeated all over Europe from August 1914. How the U.S. contributed to WW1. What were air raids like during World War One? So crucial was transportation that in the last months of the war, despite a shortage of front line soldiers, men with railway experience were being transferred from infantry units to railway operating companies. This theme - of the momentum of an initially successful advance faltering as supply lines were outrun, while defending forces were rapidly concentrated to fill the breech - was to be replayed many times during the next four years. For the British the challenge was complicated by the English Channel. In early 1943, the 79th Armoured Division under the command of Major-General Sir Percy Hobart was given responsibility for developing equipment and tactics to perform specialised tasks in support of ground troops on and after D-Day. Increasingly, the gap was filled by recruiting women to take on numerous roles that had previously been barred to them. The offensive was assisted greatly by a guerrilla campaign waged mainly by Arab irregular forces against the Turkish Hedjaz railway. There are a total of [ 14 ] WW1 Australian Infantry Weapons (1914-1918) entries in the Military Factory. Coal suddenly had to be railed over 700 miles up to the northern tip of Scotland, largely along a single track route that had never been designed for heavy freight traffic. WW1 German Army Helmet M17 CAMMO used in Russian Finnish War@@CHRISTMAS SALE!! On the home front the possible impacts of a European war had been foreseen long before 1914, and plans to put the British railways on a war footing had been prepared. Here five women are cleaning a locomotive. The next war was to show the true military potential of motor transport, while the day of the horse was to pass for ever. Artillery (heavy guns) played a big part in the battlefields of World War I. As the submarine threat grew, an alternative, largely overland route was developed. The Germans torpedoed the passenger liner Lusitania on May 1st 1915 which sank with a loss of 1,195 lives. Camels were used extensively in the campaigns in Sinai and Palestine. 67, dated July 26, 1943, has been revised and brought up to date to include instructions in the use of drugs and medicines. The end of the Salonika campaign came suddenly, after several years of stalemate. The supply lines even included extensive use of aerial ropeways to reach troops at high altitudes, especially during the freezing winters. A fleet of lorries provided the next link across the rugged mountains of central Greece to Bralo, where the final stage was completed by standard gauge rail to Salonika. Free. Oil was vital to Britain for fuelling its most powerful warships, as well as for motor transport. 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