INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE AND THE MIGHTY MUGHALS 2. Made of red stone on the bank of river Yamuna. He shifted his capital city from Agra to Delhi. The most important features of the Mughal monuments in India are the bulbous domes with constricted necks, the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, large halls, massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation. • Significant use of Rectilinear Layouts are made within the walled enclosures. Important Features of Mughal Architecture: Blend of Indian, Persian, and Turkish architectural style. Badshahi Mosque – At the time of completion in 1673, it was the largest mosque in the world. Persian style was prominent during this period. During his reign, architecture reached its height and some of the principle works were: The finest example of architecture and mark of Love. Shalimar Gardens – It is a 40 acre garden built by Shah Jahan in 1642. The Mughals built magnificent forts, palaces, gates, public buildings, mosques, baolis (water tank or well), etc. Mughal architecture is a building style that developed in the Indian subcontinent from the 16th until the early 18th century, during the reign of the Mughal Empire. It was the residence of Mughal rulers. Required fields are marked *, Slender Minarets with cupolas at the 4 corners, Aspirants can find information on the structure and other important details related to the. RELEVANCE – GS PRE & GS MAINS PAPER I – CULTURE SECTION Sikri town ( in Agra ) was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar. Some of the main features of mughal architecture are mentioned below. Mughal emperors erected building of supreme beauty and grandeur. The building material obtained from the destruction of other buildings was used for new improvised buildings such as Quwwat- … Aspirants can find information on the structure and other important details related to the IAS Exam, in the linked article. The new Indian Architecture of the Mughal period is called Mughal Architecture. The early Muslim invaders of India had come into the country to merely loot and plunder and did not concern themselves with architecture. The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both in structure and character. In fact, use of running water even in their palaces and pleasure resorts was a special feature of the Mughals. The style of architecture used by both Jahangir and Shahjahan is known as Indo Persian. Last Mughal to undertake architectural constructions. Key Features of Mughal Paintings: The Mughal pictures were small in size, and hence are known as ‘miniature paintings’. The architectural style is a remarkable mixture of Islamic, Indian, Turkish, and Persian styles. Large halls; Very large vaulted gateways; Delicate ornamentation; Bulbous domes; Slender Minarets with cupolas at the 4 corners Red Sandstone was amply used in Mughal monuments. He made the best use of Hindu and Persian style of architecture.The salient features of Akbar’s buildings are the use of red sandstone inlaid with white marble and painted designs on walls and ceiling. The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums, mosques, forts, gardens and cities. Babur undertook the construction of a mosque in Panipat and Rohilkhand in 1526 A.D. His reign was too small for any new style and design but he was fond of formal gardens. This style was influenced by Persian gardens and Timurid gardens. These two artists were originally employed by Humayun. Humayun’s tomb built at Delhi (during Akbar’s reign), has a massive dome of marble; normally, it is considered as a precursor of the Taj Mahal. Mughal dynasty was established after the battle of Panipat in 1526. One of the important distinguishing features of the Mughal buildings is their ornamentation as compared with the simple buildings of the previous Muslim rulers of India. Mughals brought in Persian style into Indian Architecture. Consequently, they did not bring with them, architects or masons. Mughal architecture begins with Akbar who displayed great passion for buildings with meticulous planning and constructing splendid edifices. Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. Ans . In this period there was extensive use of red sandstone as building material. A large trade developed between India and Western Asia and Europe, which greatly contributed to the travelers. The city came to be known as Fatehpur Sikri, the “City of Victory”, after Akbar’s victorious Gujarat campaign in 1573. Compare and contrast the architectural features of the Delhi Sultanate with that of Mughal architecture. IAS Admit Card 2020 Out: Download UPSC CSE Mains Exam Admit Card, UPSC Study Material: Complete Notes for Prelims Exam in Hindi & English [Free], Monthly Current Affairs Test 2020: Attempt Quiz in Hindi & English, UPSC IAS Prelims Answer Key 2020: Download SET A, B, C & D Answer Key PDF. INTRODUCTION • Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. Some of the main features of mughal architecture are mentioned below. During this reign, architecture touched its zenith, many new buildings and tombs were built with great artistic vision and inspiration. On similar lines, square, red, sandstone; the double storeyed structure of the mausoleum rises over a high square terrace; raised over a series of cells; etc. It was built in 1601 A.D and acts as entrance to the Jama Masjid at Fatehpur Sikri. Constructed in the memory of his beloved wife Arzuman Bano Begum or Mumtaz Mahal. The structure is an impressive example of Mughal architecture. Garden is divided into 4 parts by Charbagh (causeways), in the centre of which run shallow water-channels. Important features of this style are Curved lines, Bulbous dome, foliated arches vigorous use of marble instead of red sand stone and use of pietre dura for decorative purposes. Dec 18, 2020 - Doc: Mughal Administration - The Mughal Empire, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. Your email address will not be published. Some of the typical features include pools, fountains and canals inside the gardens. Mughal rulers were men of acute aesthetic awareness who revitalised Indo-Islamic architecture. 3. He occupied the throne of Delhi in 1556, the golden period of Mughal art and architecture. 4. 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It was designed in 1564, eight years after his death, as a mark of devotion by his widow, Haji Begum. The collected and constant efforts of these artists gave birth to a new school of painting, popularly known as the Mughal School of miniature Paintings. Mughal architecture reached its peak during the rule of Shah Jahan. The art and culture of India contain Paintings, music, architecture etc. Insights has redefined the way preparation is done in UPSC civil service exam They developed Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent. Influenced by Mughals but unique in size and scope of construction. Some of the prominent construction under his reign are: One of the first constructions during Akbar’s reign. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download contains detailed study notes for this topic. Insights is synonymous with UPSC civil services exam preparation. B Buland Darwaza was built by Mughal Emperor Akbar, to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. Indo Islamic and Mughal Architecture 1. Under the patronage of Mughal emperors, the architecture of forts and tombs saw a striking resemblance to Islamic architecture. It consisted of Diwan-i-aam and Diwan-i-khas. Background- Muslim Rule in Subcontinent There were a number of different ruling dynasties who ruled over the subcontinent at successive intervals. And after Babur, every emperor took great considerable interest in the architecture field. The Taj Mahal is a great example of Mughals’ architecture, which brought together all the architectural forms developed by the Mughals in a very pleasing manner. The character and structure of Mughal buildings displayed a uniform character and structure. For the first time, red sandstone was used along with white (the white is used cleverly to emphasize, surround & underline doors and windows, strengthening the design). SALIENT FEATURES • Pools, • Fountains • Canals inside the gardens. The material used by them to build early structures was derived from the destruction of temples in India. He didn’t take any active interest in the pursuit of art and architecture. 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Humayun’s Tomb – It was built in 1570 in memory of Emperor Humayun, it was declared as the world heritage site in 1993. Mughals brought in Persian style into Indian Architecture. Use of red sandstone was principle feature and he introduced the use of. He focused more on paintings and other art forms. The reign of Akbar is known for the initial works of Mughal School done by Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdus Samad Khan. Cornices were built in the shape of an arch such that shadow took shape of a bow. 0: if directly started body saying “Notable features of Mughal architecture are as following… …” 1: if only introduction written; 2: if both introduction and conclusion written; Body: 1 to 4 marks: Not more than 2 marks if you’ve not mentioned any specific “WHERE ARE HINDU ELEMENTS” Logical structure-1 to 0 They developed or improve the style of earlier dynasties like Lodhi’s and it was a combination of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian Architecture. 1,2 and 3. 5. What Great Buildings did the Mughals Create? Mughal architecture first developed and flourished during the reign of Akbar. The Mughals were a staunch supporter of art and architecture. The construction was completed in 1656. During this reign, architecture touched its zenith, many new buildings and tombs were built with great artistic vision and inspiration. The features include calligraphy, pietra dura works (beautiful inlay work with precious multicolour stones), Charbagh style gardens, use of water in premises for decoration and foresightening technique. Note: Charbagh style- the gardens inside the fort were built according to this style. Described as ‘frozen moment in history’ as the buildings represented a unique combination of Hindu and Persian style. Significant use of rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosures. Bara Imambara built by the Nawab of Oudh in 1784. Fluted domes covered with brass and copper guilds and arches were decorated. Building material: During the Mughal period, buildings were constructed mostly of red sandstone and white marble. Indian architecture entered upon a new phase with the advent of the Mughals. Akbar period architecture, building style that developed in India under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reigned 1556–1605). Sikandar Lodhi’s Tomb was the first garden-tomb built in India but it was the Humayun’s Tomb which gave new vision to art. Humayun reestablished the Mughal empire in 1555. His period is the transition from Lodhi style to the Mughal style of architecture. To complement your preparation for the upcoming exam, check the following links: The Mughals constructed excellent Forts, Mosques, Mausoleums, Gardens and Cities. It includes the building of palaces and forts. The Mughals were a Muslim Empire descended from the Mongol Empire of Turkestan. Fort Building. The character and structure of Mughal buildings displayed a uniform character and structure. They developed or improve the style of earlier dynasties like Lodhi’s and it was a combination of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian Architecture. Thirteenth century had already introduced of the arcuate technique where spaces were covered with domes and entrances were made with the help of arches. were also introduced. Jaali work is lace-like and carvings on marble were finely done. It can be translated as Door to Victory. Further facilitated by the inter-rivalry and lack of unity … The decline of Mughal architecture began during the rule of Aurangazeb and post his death. Development of architecture under different Mughal rulers: It was built during the reign of Aurangazeb. The Mughal paintings are developed during the rule of Mughal Emperors in India (16th to 19th century). Architecture flourished during the reign of Humayun’s son Akbar. His tomb was built at his birthplace Sasaram, Bihar, made up of red sandstone and situated inside a lake. Red Fort – UNESCO designated it as the World Heritage Site in 2007. Mughal Architecture. Mughal architecture under him reached its zenith. It is located in Agra. Apart from this celebrated duo, more than a hundred painters were employed, most of whom were Hindus from Gujarat, Gwalior and Kashmir. Post – Mughal Style of Architecture AVADH (OUDH) STYLE. Architecture During Mughal Period. 1 and 3 only. Mughal gardens. Reasons for Muslim conquests – the wealth of the nation & the spread of Islam. They made use of red and grey sandstone latticed screens, painted ceilings and coloured tiles. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 2285 times. They also laid out many formal gardens with running water. The architecture of the Akbar period is characterized by a strength made elegant and graceful by its rich decorative work, which reflects many traditional Hindu Though the Mughal art absorbed the Indian atmosphere, it neither represented the Indian emotions, nor the scenes from the daily life of the Indian. D, ASM, TTE), Food Sub Inspector, WB Police, … The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) recognized Taj Mahal as a World Heritage Site in 1983. It is the largest palace in the abandoned yet magnificent city of Fatehpur Sikri. The two most celebrated works accompli… It was built by Shah Jahan, when he decided to move the capital from Agra to Delhi. Two Frenchmen Bernier and Travenier an an Italian adventurer Manucci, the author of the Storio Dor Mogor, are specially noteworthy. The new rulers effected an amalgam of the prevalent architectural forms and techniques with those brought from Central Asia and … • This style was influenced by Persian Gardens and Timurid gardens. They developed Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent. Use of multiple Chhatris on the top of the construction. Forgusson has opined that the Mugha style of architecture was foreign in origin. Here we are giving a gist of Mughal painting which is essential in UPSC IAS Examination. Marvel at the grand design and layout. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download also contains related Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) which will be beneficial for all Competitive Exams like WBCS (Preli & Mains), UPSC, SSC, Rail (Gr. Developed in Punjab and influenced by the Mughal architecture. 2. introduction of the arch and dome in the region’s architecture 3. establishment of Timurid dynasty Select the correct answer using the code given below: (UPSC CSAT 2015) 1 and 2 only. The Mughals were known for building beautiful quadrilateral gardens. Red Fort is an irregular octagon with its walls, gates, and a few other structures constructed in red sandstone, and marble used for the palaces. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. He succeeded Babur but the reign was filled with constant struggle and war with Sher Shah Suri. Some of the most famous buildings created during Mughal era are given below. The reign of Akbar (1556-1605) witnessed the development of the mughal architecture. These include buildings for domestic usage, temples, mosques, Khanqahs and dargahs, commemorative gateways, pavilions in the buildings and gardens, bazaars, etc. He built Moti Masjid in Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore). Mughal painting echoes an elite mixture of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. The absence of pillars in the main hall and simplicity of style and symmetry are its unique features. He undertook the reconstruction and extension of an old Mauryan route and renamed it as Sadak-e-Azam which was later called as. Different types of buildings, such as majestic gates (entrances), … Your email address will not be published. What was the New Indian Architecture of the Mughal period called? Its architects were R … Continue reading "Architecture at Fatehpur Sikri" The tomb stands on a raised vast platform in the centre of a square garden. Jama Masjid – Built by Shah Jahan. Similar to literature and religion, the Mughal period was not an era of complete innovation and renaissance, but was an extension and culmination of processes that began in the last Ottoman-Afghan era. Mughal architecture started declining during his period. Safdar Jung’s tomb, built in the honour of Safdar Jung (1739-1753), who was the nephew of the first Nawab of Oudh. 3 only. One of the finest creations of the Mughal, Jodha Bai’s Palace in Fatehpur Sikri was a gift to the Rajput wife of the Mughal Emperor, Akbar. His tomb at Delhi represents an outstanding landmark in the development and refinement of the Mughal style. The Mughals were a staunch supporter of art and architecture. Each side pierced by arches and halls mounted by a large dome. Mughal architecture […] The Mughal architecture was an amalgamation of Persian, Turkic, Timurid Iranian, Central Asian, and Indian Hindu style of architecture. This was the new capital city made by Akbar and was a new era of Indo-Islamic architecture. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981. The art and architecture of the period after 1526 reveal a happy blending of Muslim and Hindu art traditions. Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Civil Service Exam by visiting the IAS Syllabus page. 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