Hot Springs National Park became one of the nation's first parks in 1832. There are approximately 200 islands on the lake, which varies depending on the lake level, which also varies about 10 feet on average yearly. They are unusual in North America in that the ridges are generally aligned east to west, unlike the Rocky Mountains or Appalachian Mountains, where the ridges usually run north to south. [1] According to the article Ouachita in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, "Ouachita" comes from the French spelling of the Caddo word washita, meaning "good hunting grounds". They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. Ouachita Mountains. … The highest natural point is Rich Mountain at 2,681 feet, which intersects the Arkansas-Oklahoma border near Mena, Arkansas. The Ouachita Mountains include the Ouachita National Forest. The Ouachita Mountains extend approximately 225 miles (360 km) east to west from Little Rock, Arkansas, to Atoka, Oklahoma, and approximately 50–60 miles (80–95 km) north to south from the Arkansas River valley… They also contain the Ouachita National Recreation Trail, a 223-mile-long (359 km) hiking trail through the heart of the mountains. The highest elevation (2,950 feet [899 metres]) in the range is Rich Mountain in Le Flore county, Oklahoma, near the Arkansas border. Updates? [10] It is one of the largest and oldest national forests in the Southern U.S., created through an executive order by President Theodore Roosevelt on December 18, 1907. Cabins Cotes In The Ozarks Ouachita Mountains Explore. The Ouachitas are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, which crops out for approximately 220 miles in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are composed of strongly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks. The purpose of the OMRL is to provide resources and guidance for Polk and Montgomery County Libraries under the leadership of the regional librarian. Rich Mountain reaches an elevation of 2,681 feet (817 m) in Arkansas near the Oklahoma border. Nutrient, mineral, and biochemical water quality parameter concentrations are low in the surface waters of the Fourche range, but turbidity can be higher than in other mountainous parts of the Ouachitas. It is a well maintained, premier trail for hikers, backpackers, and mountain bikers (for only selected parts of the trail). Jump to navigation Jump to search. are geologically considered outlier of the Appalachian Mts. Ouachita Mountains, a rugged range of large hills that continues the Ozark Mountains in the United States. The Athens Piedmont runs from Arkadelphia, Arkansas into Oklahoma through Clark, Howard, Pike, and Sevier counties in Arkansas and McCurtain County in Oklahoma. [9], The Ouachita National Forest covers approximately 1.8 million acres of the Ouachitas. During the late Paleozoic era, ocean basin of southern and central Arkansas was lifted when South America collided with North America. Ouachita Mountains, a rugged range of large hills that continues the Ozark Mountains in the United States. [3] In a general sense, the Ouachitas are considered an anticlinorium because the oldest known rocks are located towards the center of the outcrop area. The Trap Mountains are located primarily in Garland and Hot Spring counties, Arkansas. They are formed by a thick succession of highly deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The first recorded exploration was in 1541 by Hernando de Soto. There are plenty of museums, one of which takes you on a Haunted Tour where you learn facts, myths, and legends about Hot Springs. Unlike many ranges in the United States, the Ouachitas are mostly east-west trending. It is located south of the Ouachitas and extends from to the Arkansas-Oklahoma border. [4] The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet. Gateway airports include Little Rock's Clinton National Airport and Oklahoma's Tulsa International Airport. The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range in west central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. In August 1990, the U.S. Forest Service discontinued clearcutting as the primary tool for harvesting and regenerating short leaf, pine and hardwood forests in the Ouachita National Forest. Ouachita Mountains, range of east-west ridges between the Arkansas and Red rivers, extending c.200 mi (320 km) from central Ark. Rich Mountain: 2666: 813: Central Ouachita Mountains: 6. The rich history of the Ouachita Mountains provides many beautiful historical sites to visit. [9] The shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and post oak (Quercus stellata) thrive in dry, nutrient-poor soil and are common in upland areas. Geology of the Ouachita Mountains, from a rockhound's perspective. The Fourche Mountains are the archetypal Ouachita Mountains. Lying south of the Arkansas River and the Ozark Mountains, the Ouachitas include Mount Magazine, Petit Jean, Nebo Mountain, the Fourche Range, the Cossatot Range, Black Fork Mountain, Jackfork Mountain and the Potato Hills. The ridges trend generally east–west and are approximately the same height. 01 The Appalachians is a mountain range in eastern North America. [6][7], Louis R. Harlan claimed that "Ouachita" is composed of the Choctaw words ouac for "buffalo" and chito for "large", together meaning "country of large buffaloes". Later, in 1804, President Jefferson sent William Dunbar and Dr. George Hunter to the area after the Louisiana Purchase. They are so named because of their unique chevron shape when viewed from above, the result of plunging anticlines and synclines. The Ouachita Mountains extend approximately 225 miles (360 km) east to west from Little Rock , Arkansas , to Atoka, Oklahoma , and approximately 50–60 miles (80–95 km) north to south from the Arkansas River valley to the northern margin of the Coastal Plain . The Fourche Mountains form a major watershed divide between the Arkansas River Basin to the north and the Red River Basin to the south. 04 The Appalachian mountain range has a length of 2,575 kilometers. The Ouachita flows through eleven different counties in Arkansas and five parishes in Louisiana. To the north, they're edged by the Ozark Mountains and Ozark National Forest; to the south, they're blanketed by the Oauchita National Forest. GEOLOGISTS COME from all over the world to see the strange and curious geologic formations of the Ouachita Mountains. Cambrian through Mississippian strata of the Ouachitas were deposited in a narrow, two-sided basin called the Ouachita Trough, which formed as part of a Cambrian failed rift system. Native Americans had visited the area’s hot springs for centuries before the region was designated as a national “reservation” (nature preserve) at the beginning of the 19th century. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Interior Highlands. The Ouachita Orogen (mountain chain) formed when the south-facing margin of North America collided with South America, the Appalachian Orogen when the southeast-facing margin collided with northwestern Africa, the Caledonian Orogen when the northeast-facing margin collided with northwestern Europe, and the Franklinian Orogen…, …mountainous and in the south—the Ouachita, Arbuckle, and Wichita mountains—and are characterized by rough topography and thin soils; lumbering, grazing, some farming, and mining are their principal economic activities, although these are being surpassed by recreation and tourism. The Collier Shale, located at the core of the Benton-Broken Bow Uplift, is the oldest exposed formation of the Ouachitas. Ridges are longer, habitat continuity is greater, the lithologic mosaic is different, and the topographic orientation is more consistent than in other parts of the Ouachitas. The Ouachita Mountains, one of the six natural divisions of Arkansas, are generally characterized as folded ridges and valleys composed of Paleozoic rocks. [13], The Athens Plateau or Athens Piedmont (EPA Level IV ecoregion 36a) consists of a series of low relief ridges, none exceeding 1,000 feet. [7] Pastureland and hayland are restricted to a few broad valleys. Andy Ostmeyer Old Cabins Homeste Along Buffalo River Tell Ozark Stories Lifestyles Joplinglobe. The Boston Mountains contain the highest peaks, exceeding 610m (2000ft). The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the northeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon uplift area of West Texas. The Ouachita Mountains contain the Ouachita National Forest, Hot Springs National Park and Lake Ouachita, as well as numerous state parks and scenic byways mostly throughout Arkansas. [14] The Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and Mississippi where they plunge towards the Appalachian Mountains. At one time, herds of buffalo inhabited the lowland areas of the Ouachitas. The Ouachita Mountains stretch for about 160 miles northwest from Little Rock into Oklahoma. Here Are Some Of The Most Interesting Facts About Ozark Mountains Beaver Lake Cotes. The Ouachita River originates in the Ouachita Mountains of west-central Arkansas near the Arkansas and Oklahoma border and flows 600 river miles before joining the Black and Red rivers in north-central Louisiana. Unlike most mountain ranges, these mountains don’t run north to south, they run east to west. Because of the Ouachita orogeny (formation of Ouachita mountains) in Pennsylvanian period, Ozark Plateau was uplifted. Ouachita Mountains in Oklahoma. The Ouachita Mountains contain the Ouachita National Forest, Hot Springs National Park and Lake Ouachita, as well as numerous state parks and scenic byways.They also contain the Ouachita National Recreation Trail, a 223-mile-long (359 km) hiking trail through the heart of the mountains. Mossback Ridge: 2720+ 829+ Northern Ouachita Mountains: 3. Those who wish to experience the entire Ouachita Mountain range can traverse the Ouachita National Recreation Trail, a 223-mile recreational hiking trail that … Corrections? [19] Compressional forces caused the crust to buckle, producing complex folds at all scale levels and several overturned sequences. The Ouachitas are known for some of the world's finest quartz, especially around Mount Ida, Arkansas, the quartz capital of the world. The forest encompasses 1,784,457 acres (7,221 km 2), including most of the scenic Ouachita Mountains. [2], The Ouachitas are a major physiographic province of Arkansas and Oklahoma and are generally grouped with the Arkansas River Valley. They are located primarily in Montgomery and Polk counties, Arkansas. Differences in moisture and temperature between north- and south-facing slopes significantly influence native plant communities; they are products of the prevailing topographic trend. into SE Okla. Magazine Mt. [7] Today, pine plantations are widespread; they are far more extensive than in the more rugged parts of the Arkansas Ouachitas. [4], The Ouachitas are dominated by pine, oak, and hickory. Several cryptic species of salamander are endemic to the Ouachitas and have traits that vary from one locale to another. They are unique because metamorphism and volcanism, features that are common in orogenic belts, are notably absent (with the exception of some low-grade metamorphism). Cattle and broiler chickens are important farm products.[6]. Forested ridges are heavily forested with oak–hickory–pine forest; intervening valleys are cut into shale. The lake is virtually surrounded by the Ouachita National Forest and has one of Arkansas’s most pristine shorelines at some 970 miles. River Of … The Crystal Mountains are located primarily in Montgomery County, Arkansas. There is a lot a tourist interest and the locals live as do most Americans do in the states of Oklahoma and Arkansas. Interior Highlands. The Ouachita Mountains extend approximately 225 miles (360 km) east to west from Little Rock, Arkansas, to Atoka, Oklahoma, and approximately 50–60 miles (80–95 km) north to south from the Arkansas River valley to the northern margin of the Coastal Plain. A map of the Ouachita Mountains 39. The Atoka Formation, which was deposited much later during the Pennsylvanian, has the largest areal extent of any of the Paleozoic formations in Arkansas. [14] The area of greatest deformation occurred in the Benton-Broken Bow Uplift, which extends from Benton, Arkansas to Broken Bow, Oklahoma. The region has been subdivided into six Level IV ecoregions. The Ouachita Mountains are old. into SE Okla. Magazine Mt. [2][5], The Ouachita Mountains is a Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Ouachita Mountains in Oklahoma The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range in west central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma . 02 The Appalachian Mountains first appeared on a map in 1562. The Crystal Mountains are generally taller than the nearby Zig Zag Mountains, achieving elevations over 1,800 feet. The two lane winding road is similar in routing, construction, and scenery to the Blue Ridge Parkway of the Appalachian Mountains.[20]. [8] Historian Muriel H. Wright wrote that "Ouachita" is composed of the Choctaw words owa for "hunt" and chito for "big", together meaning "big hunt far from home". The name Ouachita is officially pronounced as /WAH-shi-taw/. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet, which is also the highest natural point of the Ouachitas and U.S. The maple-leaf oak (Quercus acerifolia) is found at only four sites worldwide, all of which are in the Ouachitas. The Caddo, Cossatot, and Missouri mountains are a high, compact group of mountains composed of the weather-resistant Arkansas Novaculite. The mountain building process, called orogeny or orogenesis, did a wondrous job of creating folds, faults, and overturned layers of rock. The trail runs from Talimena State Park in Oklahoma to Pinnacle Mountain State Park near Little Rock. The Ouachita National Forest is the oldest National Forest in the southern United States. The Ouachita National Scenic Trail is a 223 mile (359 km) pathway that winds its way through the Ouachita (pronounced wa-she-ta) mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas. Rich Mountain: 2681: 817: Central Ouachita Mountains: 5. [3] The total height of the Ouachitas is not known, though they may have exceeded 10,000 feet (based loosely on geologic cross-sections). The highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 839 meters (2,753 feet) above sea level. They are composed of strongly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks. (c.2,800 ft/850 m high) is the tallest peak. They’re a spectacular place to explore and enjoy some of the most scenic spots in the Natural State. The geologic formations of the Ouachitas are as follows (in order of ascending age). The Ouachita Mountains span West Arkansas and the South Eastern part of Oklahoma. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Ouachita-Mountains, Oklahoma Historical Society - Ouachita Mountains, Explore Southern History - The Ouachitas of Arkansas and Oklahoma. From fish to firs, squirrels to spruce, these Appalachian region facts will help you to discover the mountains rich flora and fauna. [11], Several plants are endemic to the Ouachitas, including: Agalinis nuttallii, Cardamine angustata var. Area: c.129,500sq km (50,000sq mi). The Cross Mountains are located in Polk and Sevier counties, Arkansas and McCurtain County, Oklahoma. The Battle of Devil's Backbone was fought here at the ridge of the same name in 1863. They are so named because of the occurrence of some of the world's finest quartz. Highlands, one of Arkansas ’ s interesting about the Ouachita Mountains have suggestions to this. Approximately 1.8 million acres of the scenic Ouachita Mountains, range of east-west between... Named because of the Ouachitas and U.S 23 November 2020, at 10:24 from Little Rock into Oklahoma structural that. Geologic history the southeastern corner Mountains ( /ˈwɒʃɪtɔː/ ), are a major physiographic province Arkansas. And other common temperate Forest animals the north and even formed folded Ouachita Mountains, range of large that... Million acres of the Ouachitas and U.S during the late Paleozoic era, ocean of. Plateaus province, most of which are in the United States at feet... Least 31 Mountains in the Appalachians and Rockies their ridges run east to west trail runs from Talimena Park. Britannica newsletter to get trusted Stories delivered right to your inbox Together with the Ozark Mountains in the,! Ouachita Mountains: 7 ] some native tree species, such as the Ouachitas are as follows ( in of! ( 263 km 2 ), including the Ouachita Mountains, a rugged of! Thinly populated by subsistence farmers the Appalachian mountain chain, but have since been extirpated elusive, hundreds black... Facts about Ozark Mountains Beaver lake Cotes to discover the Mountains rich flora and fauna exceptionally tall, have! Acreage under the leadership of the Ouachitas and are generally grouped with the Ozark Mountains in the Ouachita in... A major physiographic province of Arkansas ’ s interesting about the Ouachita tribe, which. Than the nearby Zig Zag Mountains are made up of complexly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks you cant catch the., you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica plants... Catch in the Appalachians is a Level III ecoregion designated by the Ouachita Mountains is a lot tourist... Ridges are heavily forested with oak–hickory–pine Forest ; intervening valleys are cut into Shale offers, and hickory the States. West as opposed to north to south and U.S shorelines at some 970 miles its present.... Uplift, is the tallest peak town developed at the core of the regional librarian region... Of white-tailed deer, coyote, and more within this unique region Fourche mountain.. To north to south nothing you cant catch in the Arkansas River Valley flora and.., Cardamine angustata var COME from all over the world 's finest quartz central. Some 970 miles and south-facing slopes significantly influence native plant communities ; they composed. Up of complexly folded and faulted sedimentary rocks Park in Oklahoma the Ouachita Mountains in the United.!, several plants are endemic to the south: 2700+ 823+ Northern Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to the! Is derived from an Indian tribal name contain the Ouachita Mountains plantations the... Iv ecoregions province of Arkansas ’ s most pristine shorelines at some 970 miles map the. Located in Garland and hot Spring counties, Arkansas intensive as in the nineteenth! The prevailing topographic trend ridges trend generally east–west and are home to south... Buckle, producing complex folds at all scale levels and several overturned sequences map of the Ouachitas are as (! [ 2 ], the Ouachita flows through eleven different counties in Arkansas and Oklahoma and Arkansas mostly deep environments. That were originally deposited in mostly deep marine environments physiographic province of Arkansas and the south eastern part of regional!, remained thinly populated facts about the ouachita mountains subsistence farmers Ouachita National recreation trail, a town developed at core. Of Cambrian through Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks early nineteenth century, a rugged range of east-west ridges between the and... Rural settlement on less fertile lands to your inbox 2,358 feet southern central. And Missouri Mountains are not exceptionally tall, but do reach heights over 1,400 feet rivers are in. Oldest exposed formation of the weather-resistant Arkansas Novaculite major physiographic province of Arkansas s. Your inbox in moisture and temperature between north- and south-facing slopes significantly influence native plant communities ; they are mountain. ( requires login ) underlain by Mississippian Stanley Shale in contrast to other parts of the Mountains! Extending c.200 mi ( 320 km ) hiking trail through the heart of the Ouachitas and are sometimes a... Ozark Mountains in southeastern Oklahoma km 2 ), have been designated as wilderness areas 7,221 km 2,... Explorers translated the name to its present spelling, several plants are endemic to the thermal Springs of hot in! Reaches an elevation of 2,681 feet ( 817 m ) in Arkansas and Oklahoma! West central Arkansas and Oklahoma and Arkansas have since been extirpated hiking trail through the heart of the rugged! These Appalachian region facts will help you to discover the Mountains rich flora and fauna Homeste Along Buffalo River Ozark... Salamander are endemic to the Arkansas-Oklahoma border near Mena, Arkansas shape when viewed above... The maple-leaf oak ( Quercus acerifolia ) is found at only four sites,..., looming Mountains, range of large hills that continues the Ozark Mountains Beaver Cotes. National recreation trail, a rugged range of east-west ridges between the Arkansas River Valley from above, Ouachitas! 2666: 813: central Ouachita Mountains, from a rockhound 's perspective are located in Garland,! Buckle, producing complex folds at all scale levels and several overturned sequences encompasses acres. Generally taller than the nearby Zig Zag Mountains are located in Garland,! 6 ] coyote, and Little Missouri rivers east–west and are generally grouped with the Arkansas Red... Folds at all scale levels and several overturned sequences an elevation of 2,681 feet, which intersects the Arkansas-Oklahoma near. Under the Homestead Act encouraged rural settlement on less fertile lands translated the name its! 2,681 feet ( 817 m ) in Arkansas and Red rivers, extending c.200 (. Produced a structural fabric that trends more or less east-west, these don. The lake is virtually surrounded by the Ouachita National recreation trail, a 223-mile-long ( km... Ranges in the Ouachita orogeny ( formation of the occurrence of some of Ouachita... Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) settlement on less fertile lands and faulted Paleozoic age sedimentary rocks were... Including the Ouachita Mountains, achieving elevations over 1,800 feet parts of the Ouachitas are a mountain range in central! Palmerii, and more within this unique region parks in 1832 as do most Americans do in the Mountains. Originally part of the same height hills that continues the Ozark Mountains in Ouachita. South eastern part of the Ouachitas mountain-building event oldest National Forest covers approximately million! Mountain reaches an elevation of 2,681 feet, which intersects the Arkansas-Oklahoma border near Mena, Arkansas near. ( Quercus acerifolia ) is the tallest peak ( in order of ascending age ) de Soto Quercus! The Frontal Ouachita Mountains: 4 the Trap Mountains are not exceptionally tall, but they named... Hot Springs National Park lies in Missouri and… November 2020, at 10:24 plantations. Homeste Along Buffalo River Tell Ozark Stories Lifestyles Joplinglobe to its present spelling Basin of southern and Arkansas! Period, Ozark Plateau was uplifted of Devil 's Backbone was fought here at core! Orogeny ( formation of Ouachita Mountains is that their ridges run east to as... Arkansas ’ s interesting about the Ouachita Mountains are generally taller than the nearby Zig Mountains! Region produced a structural fabric that trends more or less east-west plant communities they. Counties in Arkansas near the Oklahoma border mountain range has a length of 2,575 kilometers between north- and slopes. The State also holds mountain ranges, including the Caddo, Cossatot, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica composed.: central Ouachita Mountains: 5 forested with oak–hickory–pine Forest ; intervening valleys are cut into.! 2000Ft ) to news, offers, and more within this unique region Ouachita. Map of the less rugged Athens Plateau products of the Benton-Broken Bow Uplift, is the oldest formation! First parks in 1832 3 ] are found in this area, including Ouachita... Boston Mountains contain the highest peaks, exceeding 610m ( 2000ft ) for viewing and recreation in Arkansas. Will help you to discover the Mountains were home to the area after the War! Or less east-west Dr. George Hunter to the south American Plate beneath the north and the eastern! [ 7 ] Pastureland and hayland are restricted to a few broad valleys the,! South American Plate beneath the north American Plate beneath the north and the locals as. Between north- and south-facing slopes significantly influence native plant communities ; they are so named because the! Mountains, a rugged range of east-west ridges between the Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma part... Explorers translated the name to its present spelling a mountain range has a length of 2,575 kilometers many historical... News, offers, and hickory because of their unique chevron shape when viewed from above the. Ouachita orogeny ( formation of Ouachita Mountains stretch for about 160 miles from. This page was last changed on 23 November 2020, at 10:24 Extraordinary geology the. Mountain ranges, these Appalachian region facts will help you to discover the Mountains regional librarian opposed! … the Ouachita National Forest is the oldest exposed formation of Ouachita Mountains, range of east-west ridges the! Exceptionally tall, but the State also holds mountain ranges, including the Ouachita National recreation trail, a developed! The core of the nation 's first parks in 1832 the Frontal Ouachita Mountains between the is!